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Военно-морской музейный комплекс «Балаклава»

9 июня 2017 г.

Андрей Р.     Автор: Андрей Р

voenno-morskoj-muzej-balaklava

Военно-морской музейный комплекс «Балаклава». Фото: static.panoramio.com

«Это хорошо, что не шалят… Но на всякий случай всё-таки я взял с собой три револьвера, — соврал землемер. — А с револьвером, знаешь, шутки плохи. С десятью разбойниками можно справиться…» А. П. Чехов, «Пересолил».

В моем советском детстве был популярен фразеологизм «на всякий пожарный»… О нем я невольно вспомнил при написании этой статьи. Сегодня поговорим об объекте, цели строительства которого с удивительной точностью характеризуют значение и смысл вышеупомянутого фразеологизма.

Построенный на всякий (особый) случай, в режиме строжайшей секретности. Спроектированный лучшими советскими инженерами, по приказу Сталина. Когда-то стратегически важный объект спустя 42 года стал просто музеем. К счастью…

Объект 825 ГТС

Бывший военно-секретный объект времен «холодной войны» — одна из главных достопримечательностей Балаклавы. Имеет несколько названий — Объект 825 ГТС, К-825, иногда называется просто — «Музей холодной войны».

Проект представлял собой подводную гавань для укрытия и ремонта подводных лодок и закрытая со всех сторон от ветра и волн, Балаклавская бухта, незаметная со стороны моря, скрытая горами — была идеальным местом для строительства.

Огроменные склады для хранения продовольственных продуктов, топливные хранилища, тайники для военного снаряжения и боевых снарядов — всё это было построено здесь на случай атомной войны. При строительстве учитывалась возможность выдержать прямое попадание атомной бомбы мощностью 100 кт.

Для сравнения — «Little Boy» («Малыш»), сброшенный на Хиросиму в августе 1945 года, обладал мощностью эквивалентной от 13 до 18 килотонн тротила. А сброшенная тремя днями позже — 9 августа 1945 на город Нагасаки атомная бомба «Fat Man» («Толстяк») обл. мощностью эквивалентной 21 килотонны тротила.

Немного истории

Замысел о строительстве военно-стратегического объекта такого масштаба впервые появился в послевоенный период, когда обе сверхдержавы — СССР и США стали активно наращивать свой ядерный потенциал, угрожая друг другу превентивными ударами и ударами возмездия. Именно тогда Сталин отдал Берии (курировавшему в то время «ядерный проект») секретную директиву: найти такое место, где могли бы базироваться подводные лодки для нанесения ответного ядерного удара. После нескольких лет поисков выбор пал на тихую Балаклаву:

Город сразу же засекретили и поменяли статус — город Балаклава превратился в закрытый район города Севастополь.

Загадочная Балаклава

Военно-морской музейный комплекс «Балаклава». Фото: static.panoramio.com

Подземный комплекс строился 8 лет. Начали строить в 1953 г. — в год смерти Сталина, а закончили в 1961 г. При строительстве было вывезено около 120 тыс. тонн породы. Для обеспечения секретности, дабы не засветиться перед пролетающими вражескими спутниками, вывоз породы производился ночью на баржах в открытое море. Строили объект сначала военные, а потом подключили специалистов-метростроевцев, что было обусловлено сложностью бурения породы.

Расположение и характеристики

Располагается музей в горе Таврос, по обеим сторонам которой находятся два выхода. Вход в канал (штольня) со стороны Балаклавской бухты. А выход в открытое море пробурили в северной стороне горы. И выход и вход с двух сторон по необходимости могли быть перекрыты специальными плавучими батопортами, вес каждого из них достигал 150 тонн. Оба отверстия в скале были искусно закрыты маскировочными приспособлениями и сетями.

Объект был рассчитан на одновременное размещение сразу 7 подводных лодок. Длина канала внушительная — 602 метра. Глубина достигает 8 м, а ширина колеблется от 12 до 22 м. Общая площадь объекта составила 15 тыс. квадратных метров, а находившиеся там люди могли провести автономно до 30 суток.

muzej-podvodnyh-lodok-v-balaklave

Военно-морской музейный комплекс «Балаклава»

В скрытых от окружающего мира штольнях работали почти 1000 человек. По своему назначению сооружение использовали почти 30 лет. После распада СССР объект законсервировали, и за короткий срок это место облюбовали вездесущие мародеры, растаскивая все более-менее ценное. В 2000 году объект перешел на баланс Украины. И уже в 2003 году Киев принял решение рассекретить объект, сделав из него музей.

Настоящее время и дальнейшая судьба

В 2014 году объект вместе с Крымом, Севастополем и Балаклавой перешел в юрисдикцию России. Почти сразу же распространился слух о возвращении объекту статус военной базы, но с стратегической точки зрения, объекту потерявший свою секретность, и чья инфраструктура находится в плачевном состоянии, «дешевле» оставаться музеем.

Сегодня это место очень популярно. Для всех желающих существует на выбор два варианта: приобрести пешую или морскую экскурсию. По отзывам туристов, пешая гораздо интересней. Впрочем, все зависит от профессионализма экскурсоводов.

Фото на превью: Военно-морской музей Балаклава. panoramio.com

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