Мысли вслух

Мысли вслух

Воинская Слава России

Мало найдётся людей, которые бы не слыхали о героической обороне Брестской крепости, ей посвящены многочисленные исследования и публикации, о ней сняты документальные и художественные фильмы. О подвигах же наших славных предков в годы 1-ой Мировой войны известно значительно меньше и порой они незаслуженно преданы забвению. Одним из таких подвигов является легендарная оборона крепости Осовец, больше известная как «Атака мертвецов».

Картинки по запросу фото крепости осовец

фото: YouTube

Предлагаю Вашему вниманию три статьи, посвящённые подвигу русского воинства в годы 1-ой Мировой войны- героической обороне крепости Осовец. Почему именно три? Первая статья описывает оборону глазами русских солдат и очевидцев. Вторая позволяет взглянуть на это событие глазами немецких солдат, описанное в их воспоминаниях. Третья посвящена коменданту крепости Осовец генерал-лейтенанту Николаю Александровичу Бржозовскому, участнику практически всех войн, которые вела Россия в конце XIX — начале ХХ века.

Мне кажется, что такой подход оправдан и позволяет представить себе наиболее полную картину этого во истину бессмертного подвига русского солдата, который шел в бой с ясным сознанием, за что он идет, – «За Веру, Царя, и Отечество». Шел с верой в Бога и крестом на груди, препоясанный кушаком с надписью «Живый в помощи Вышняго», полагая душу свою «за други своя».

Поскольку объём каждой, отдельно взятой, статьи достаточно большой по меркам Инета, весь материал и разбит на три части. Какая-то часть статей  будет повторяться друг в друге, но я не стал ничего менять дабы не нарушать стройность повествования авторов.

АТАКА МЕРТВЕЦОВ

6 августа 2015 г.

Картинки по запросу фото Диакон Владимир Василик     Автор: Диакон Владимир Василик

К 100-летию подвига защитников крепости Осовец

Атака мертвецов. Художник: Евгений Пономарев

Атака мертвецов. Художник: Евгений Пономарев

Сегодня исполняется 100 лет со дня знаменитой «Атаки мертвецов» – события, уникального для истории войн: контратаки 13-й роты 226-го Землянского полка, пережившей немецкую газовую атаку при штурме германскими войсками крепости Осовец 6 августа (24 июля) 1915 года. Как это было?

Шел второй год войны. Ситуация на Восточном фронте складывалась не в пользу России. 1 мая 1915 года после газовой атаки у Горлицы немцам удалось прорвать русские позиции, и началось широкомасштабное наступление немецких и австрийских войск. В результате были оставлены Царство Польское, Литва, Галиция, часть Латвии и Белоруссия. Только пленными императорская армия России потеряла 1,5 миллиона человек, а общие потери за 1915 год насчитывали около 3 миллионов убитых, раненых и пленных.

Однако было ли великое отступление 1915 года позорным бегством? Нет.

О том же Горлицком прорыве видный военный историк А. Керсновский пишет следующее: «На рассвете 19 апреля IV-я австро-венгерская и XI-я германская армии обрушились на IX-й и Х-й корпуса на Дунайце и у Горлицы. Тысяча орудий – до 12-дюймового калибра включительно – затопили огневым морем неглубокие наши окопы на фронте 35 верст, после чего пехотные массы Макензена и эрцгерцога Иосифа Фердинанда ринулись на штурм. Против каждого нашего корпуса было по армии, против каждой нашей бригады – по корпусу, против каждого нашего полка – по дивизии. Ободренный молчанием нашей артиллерии, враг считал все наши силы стертыми с лица земли. Но из разгромленных окопов поднялись кучки полузасыпанных землею людей – остатки обескровленных, но не сокрушенных полков 42, 31, 61 и 9-й дивизий. Казалось, встали из своих могил цорндорфские фузилеры. Своей железной грудью они спружинили удар и предотвратили катастрофу всей российской вооруженной силы».

Слабо вооруженный, технически малограмотный в сравнении с немцем русский солдат делал что мог, спасая страну, личным мужеством и своей кровью искупая просчеты начальства, лень и корысть тыловиков. Без снарядов и патронов, отступая, русские солдаты наносили тяжелые удары немецким и австрийским войскам, чьи совокупные потери за 1915 год насчитывали около 1200 тысяч человек.

В истории отступления 1915 года славной страницей является оборона крепости Осовец. Она находилась всего в 23 километрах от границы с Восточной Пруссией. По словам участника обороны Осовца С. Хмелькова, основной задачей крепости было «преградить противнику ближайший и удобнейший путь на Белосток… заставить противника потерять время или на ведение длительной осады, или на поиски обходных путей». А Белосток – это дорога на Вильно (Вильнюс), Гродно, Минск и Брест, то есть – ворота в Россию. Первые атаки немцев последовали уже в сентябре 1914 года, а с февраля 1915 года начались планомерные штурмы, которые отбивались в течение 190 дней, несмотря на чудовищную немецкую техническую мощь.

Немецкая пушка Большая Берта

Немецкая пушка Большая Берта

Доставили знаменитые «Большие Берты» – осадные орудия 420-миллиметрового калибра, 800-килограммовые снаряды которой проламывали двухметровые стальные и бетонные перекрытия. Воронка от такого взрыва была 5 метров глубиной и 15 в диаметре. Под Осовец привезли четыре «Большие Берты» и 64 других мощных осадных орудия – всего 17 батарей. Самый жуткий обстрел был в начале осады. «Противник 25 февраля открыл огонь по крепости, довел его 27 и 28 февраля до ураганного и так продолжал громить крепость до 3 марта», – вспоминал С. Хмельков. По его подсчетам, за эту неделю ужасающего обстрела по крепости было выпущено 200–250 тысяч только тяжелых снарядов. А всего за время осады – до 400 тысяч. «Страшен был вид крепости, вся крепость была окутана дымом, сквозь который то в одном, то в другом месте вырывались огромные огненные языки от взрыва снарядов; столбы земли, воды и целые деревья летели вверх; земля дрожала, и казалось, что ничто не может выдержать такого ураганного огня. Впечатление было таково, что ни один человек не выйдет целым из этого урагана огня и железа».

И однако крепость стояла. Защитников просили продержаться хотя бы 48 часов. Они выстояли 190 дней, подбив при этом две «Берты». Особенно важно было удержать Осовец во время великого наступления, чтобы не дать легионам Макензена захлопнуть русские войска в польском мешке.

Немецкая газовая батарея

Немецкая газовая батарея

Видя, что артиллерия не справляется со своими задачами, немцы стали готовить газовую атаку. Отметим, что отравляющие вещества были запрещены в свое время Гаагской конвенцией, которую немцы, однако, цинично презрели, как и многое другое, исходя из лозунга: «Германия превыше всего». Национальное и расовое превозношение подготовило почву для бесчеловечных технологий Первой и Второй мировых войн. Немецкие газовые атаки Первой мировой – предтечи газовых камер. Характерна личность «отца» немецкого химического оружия Фрица Габера. Он любил из безопасного места наблюдать за мучениями отравленных солдат противника. Показательно, что его жена покончила с собой после немецкой газовой атаки у Ипра.

Первая газовая атака на Русском фронте зимой 1915 года оказалась неудачной: слишком низкой была температура. В дальнейшем газы (прежде всего хлор) стали надежными союзниками немцев, в том числе под Осовцом в августе 1915 года.

Немецкая газовая атака

Немецкая газовая атака

Газовую атаку немцы готовили тщательно, терпеливо выжидая нужного ветра. Развернули 30 газовых батарей, несколько тысяч баллонов. И 6 августа в 4 утра на русские позиции потек темно-зеленый туман смеси хлора с бромом, достигший их за 5–10 минут. Газовая волна 12–15 метров в высоту и шириной 8 км проникла на глубину до 20 км. Противогазов у защитников крепости не было.

«Всё живое на открытом воздухе на плацдарме крепости было отравлено насмерть, – вспоминал участник обороны. – Вся зелень в крепости и в ближайшем районе по пути движения газов была уничтожена, листья на деревьях пожелтели, свернулись и опали, трава почернела и легла на землю, лепестки цветов облетели. Все медные предметы на плацдарме крепости – части орудий и снарядов, умывальники, баки и прочее – покрылись толстым зеленым слоем окиси хлора; предметы продовольствия, хранящиеся без герметической укупорки – мясо, масло, сало, овощи, – оказались отравленными и непригодными для употребления».

Атака мертвецов. Реконструкция

Атака мертвецов. Реконструкция

«Полуотравленные брели назад, – это пишет уже другой автор, – и, томимые жаждой, нагибались к источникам воды, но тут на низких местах газы задерживались, и вторичное отравление вело к смерти».

Германская артиллерия вновь открыла массированный огонь, вслед за огневым валом и газовым облаком на штурм русских передовых позиций двинулись 14 батальонов ландвера – а это не менее 7 тысяч пехотинцев. Их цель была взятие стратегически важной Сосненской позиции. Им обещали, что они никого не встретят, кроме мертвецов.

Вспоминает участник обороны Осовца Алексей Лепешкин: «У нас не было противогазов, поэтому газы нанесли ужасные увечья и химические ожоги. При дыхании вырывался хрип и кровавая пена из легких. Кожа на руках и лицах пузырилась. Тряпки, которыми мы обмотали лица, не помогали. Однако русская артиллерия начала действовать, посылая из зеленого хлорного облака снаряд за снарядом в сторону пруссаков. Тут начальник 2-го отдела обороны Осовца Свечников, сотрясаясь от жуткого кашля, прохрипел: “Други мои, не помирать же нам, как пруссакам-тараканам, от потравы. Покажем им, чтобы помнили вовек!»

И поднялись те, кто пережил страшную газовую атаку, в том числе 13-я рота, потерявшая половину состава. Ее возглавил подпоручик Владимир Карпович Котлинский. Навстречу немцам шли «живые мертвецы», с лицами, обмотанными тряпками. Кричать «Ура!» сил не было. Бойцы сотрясались от кашля, многие выхаркивали кровь и куски легких. Но шли.

Атака мертвецов. Реконструкция

Атака мертвецов. Реконструкция

Один из очевидцев сообщил газете «Русское слово»: «Я не могу описать озлобления и бешенства, с которым шли наши солдаты на отравителей-немцев. Сильный ружейный и пулеметный огонь, густо рвавшаяся шрапнель не могли остановить натиска рассвирепевших солдат. Измученные, отравленные, они бежали с единственной целью – раздавить немцев. Отсталых не было, торопить не приходилось никого. Здесь не было отдельных героев, роты шли как один человек, одушевленные только одной целью, одной мыслью: погибнуть, но отомстить подлым отравителям».

Подпоручик Владимир Котлинский

Подпоручик Владимир Котлинский

В дневнике боевых действий 226-го Землянского полка говорится: «Приблизившись к противнику шагов на 400, подпоручик Котлинский во главе со своей ротой бросился в атаку. Штыковым ударом сбил немцев с занятой ими позиции, заставив их в беспорядке бежать… Не останавливаясь, 13-я рота продолжала преследовать бегущего противника, штыками выбила его из занятых им окопов 1-го и 2-го участков Сосненских позиций. Вновь заняли последнюю, вернув обратно захваченные противником наше противоштурмовое орудие и пулеметы. В конце этой лихой атаки подпоручик Котлинский был смертельно ранен и передал командование 13-й ротой подпоручику 2-й Осовецкой саперной роты Стрежеминскому, который завершил и окончил столь славно начатое подпоручиком Котлинским дело».

Котлинский умер к вечеру того же дня, Высочайшим приказом от 26 сентября 1916 года он был посмертно награжден орденом святого Георгия 4-й степени.

Сосненская позиция была возвращена, и положение было восстановлено. Успех был достигнут дорогой ценой: погибло 660 человек. Но крепость держалась.

К концу августа удержание Осовца потеряло всякий смысл: фронт откатился далеко на восток. Крепость была правильным образом эвакуирована: врагу не оставили не то что орудия – ни единого снаряда, патрона и даже консервной банки не досталось немцам. Орудия по ночам тянули по Гродненскому шоссе по 50 солдат. В ночь на 24 августа русские саперы подорвали остатки оборонительных сооружений и ушли. И лишь 25 августа немцы рискнули войти в развалины.

К сожалению, часто русских солдат и офицеров Первой мировой упрекают в недостатке героизма и жертвенности, рассматривая Вторую Отечественную через призму 1917 года – крушения власти и армии, «измены, трусости и обмана». Мы видим, что это не так.

Оборона Осовца сравнима с героической защитой Брестской крепости и Севастополя во время Великой Отечественной войны. Потому что в начальный период Первой мировой войны русский солдат шел в бой с ясным сознанием, за что он идет, – «За Веру, Царя, и Отечество». Шел с верой в Бога и крестом на груди, препоясанный кушаком с надписью «Живый в помощи Вышняго», полагая душу свою «за други своя».

И хотя это сознание помутилось в результате тылового мятежа февраля 1917 года, оно, пусть и в несколько измененном виде, после многих страданий возродилось в страшные и славные годы Великой Отечественной войны.

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165 комментариев на ««За Веру, Царя и Отечество»: 1-ая Мировая война. Героическая оборона крепости Осовец»

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