Лента новостей

Лента новостей


Армия и Флот

Армия и Флот

То, чего мы не знаем.

Наверно никто и нигде в мире не гордится тельняшкой так, как гордятся и любят её в России. Хотя тельняшка является предметом униформы военнослужащих многих стран, только в России она стала особым символом, отличительным знаком настоящих мужчин. Мистический символ морской души. И не важно- душа эта гражданского или военного моряка. Больше того, тельняшка давно уже перестала быть символом только моряков и приобрела популярность среди всех родов войск: она стала обязательной формой одежды морских и воздушных десантников, внутренних войск и спецназа и, конечно же она завоевала популярность среди гражданского населения.  Тельняшке суждено было стать не только «любимицей» моряков, но и их символом доблести и братства. Моряки всех поколений русского флота называют ее «морской душой» и с удовольствием носят не только во флоте, но и в быту. Причем популярна эта одежда не только у профессионалов, но и у обывателей — и у взрослых, и у детей. Она давно стала не только элементом морской амуниции, но и предметом гардероба многих людей, не связанных с флотом. Такая её востребованность должна иметь под собой какие-то минимальные основания и возникает вопрос: откуда она есть, где и как родилась на свет белый.

Если обратиться к не совсем уж и давней нашей истории, то выясняется, что тельняшка не всегда была одним из символов и атрибутов одежды моряков. Есть сведения, что в день 19 августа 1874 года (по старому стилю) по инициативе Великого Князя Константина Николаевича Романова, носившего тогда высший военно-морской чин – генерал-адмирал, император Александр ІІ подписал указ о введении новой формы, которым тельняшка (специальная «нательная» рубаха) была введена как часть обязательной формы одежды русского моряка. Сама тельняшка была регламентирована так:  «Рубаха, вязанная из шерсти пополам с бумагою (хлопком); цвет рубахи белый с синими поперечными полосами, отстоящими одна от другой на один вершок (44,45 мм). Ширина синих полос – четверть вершка… Вес рубахи полагается не менее 80 золотников (344 грамма). Синие и белые полосы тельняшки соответствовали цветам Андреевского флага Русского военно-морского флота. Ну и конечно же этот праздник отмечается ежегодно по всей стране.

Кстати говоря, дата 19 августа стала отмечаться в России как день рождения русской тельняшки. И хотя праздник этот не является официальным, он очень популярен в нашей стране, особенно в Санкт-Петербурге.

После долгих поисков мне удалось найти упоминание о первом праздновании Дня русской тельняшки, которое состоялось в 2001 году в небольшом музее «Морская Стрельна». Неформальное празднование ежегодно проходит на борту ледокола «Красин», который является Филиалом Музея Мирового океана в Санкт-Петербурге и пришвартован на вечную стоянку по адресу: наб. Лейтенанта Шмидта, 23 линия. Ну и конечно же этот праздник отмечается ежегодно по всей нашей стране.

Существует бесчисленное множество публикаций, в которых предприняты попытки раскрыть главные загадки и историю происхождения  "морской души". Среди них хотелось бы выделить статью Алексиса Остоя «7 главных вопросов к тельняшке». Предлагаю своим читателям ознакомиться с интересными фактами, приведёнными в ней. Статья подверглась мною  небольшой правке и сокращениям, не повлиявшим никак на её суть. Полностью с текстом статьи можно ознакомиться по ссылке на источник в конце публикации.

7 главных вопросов к тельняшке

Алексис Остоя

Для начала небольшой пролог. Если до этого вы что-то читали о происхождении тельняшек, то считайте, вы потеряли время. То, что написано на русском языке, является ущербной компиляцией компиляции. Сегодня, в неофициальный день рождения русской тельняшки, у вас появилась счастливая возможность узнать НЕЧТО об этом элементе «морского» гардероба, если вам, конечно, это вообще зачем-то нужно.

Теперь собственно сам пролог. Любой человек является кровь от плоти сыном своей земли. Носителем ее языка, культуры, стереотипов, заблуждений и глупости. Но однажды этому до мозга костей земному существу, «сухопутной крысе», экзистенциальному «корнеплоду»  выпадает случай отправиться в открытое море. Гравитация уменьшается, репка вытягивается и «корнеплод» умирает, а вместо него появляется на свет тот, кого называют «перекати поле», «оторви да выбрось»,

Морская культура — это первый опыт глобализации. Морякам всего мира плевать на флаги, государственные границы, на религию. Все сухопутное теряет для них ценность сразу после того, когда они переборют морскую болезнь и пересекут экватор. После этого они уже знают, что жизнь, в которой ты ощущаешь под ногами твердую плоть, есть иллюзия, обманка, фуфло. Вся правда, подлинная реальность творится в море, где не видно берегов. Вместо прошлого ковыляния по глинозему, человек приобретает плавающую, мягкую поступь, в которой сквозит легкое пренебрежение ко всему, что тверже палубной доски и что поглощает щегольской стук каблуков.

Моряки – это инопланетяне на нашей планете, глобальная альтернатива «почвенному бытию»,  антисистема для «земляного порядка». Именно в такой культуре мог родиться странный и в то же время очень глубокий по смыслу культ вещи, которую западный мир называет breton shirt (бретонская рубаха), а мы, русские, — «тельняшкой».

1. Почему она полосатая?
Каждый юнга до недавнего времени знал, что море населяют не только рыбы и водные гады, но и духи. Множество духов! Наладить с ними нормальный контакт, найти взаимопонимание — это залог не только благополучного плавания, но и гарант продолжительности жизни моряка. Мать-судьба правит в море напрямую, без посредника в виде «здравого смысла». В связи с этим главная задача любого человека, находящегося в открытом море, —  не спровоцировать судьбу на лихо. За многие тысячелетия эта цель сформировала вокруг себя целую систему знаний, настоящую науку, которые зависимые от земной тверди люди беспечно именуют морскими суевериями.

Моряки не любят проверять аксиомы с помощью личного опыта. Им чужды эксперименты физиков и беспечное любопытство лириков. Все, что они должны делать, это четко следовать традиции, ибо утопленникам сложно учиться на собственных ошибках.

Не брать женщину на корабль, не свистеть, не убивать чаек, купаться после пересечения экватора; серьга в ухе, чтобы не утонуть, татуировка, чтобы не стать призраком после смерти,  – все несет свой конкретный смысл, где функциональность соседствует с мистицизмом, защитной магией.

Испокон веков бретонские рыбаки, отправляясь в море, надевали на себя полосатые (черно-белые) робы. Считалось, что роба оберегает их от агрессии  ундин, русалок и прочей нечисти. Возможно, бретонская тельняшка исполняла роль подводного камуфляжа, защищающего от взгляда морских бесов. А, может быть, чередующим горизонтальным полосам приписывалась бретонскими рыбаками другая функция: одно можно сказать точно, полосатая рубаха играла роль оберега.

В период Великих географических открытий, когда в мире стоял острый кадровый дефицит,  многие бретонские рыбаки пополнили европейские флотилии. Но большая часть бретонцев, как не странно, оказалась на голландских, а не французских кораблях. Может быть, потому, что там хорошо платили, может быть, потому, что  бретонцы не очень любили французских узурпаторов, а, может быть, либеральные по природе голландцы не запрещали носить бретонцам их вызывающие полосатые наряды. Это было начало XVII века; к концу столетия тельняшка станет мировым fashion-трендом для всех европейских моряков.

2. Сколько полосок на тельняшке?
Конечно, можно банально посчитать полоски на тельняшке того же десантника, но и здесь нас ждет разочарование. В России с советского периода количество полосок на тельняшках зависит от габаритов конкретного моряка, морского пехотинца ил пограничника. Условно говоря, на 46-м размере их будет 33, а на 56-м – 52. Нумерологическую проблематику тельняшки можно было бы спустить на тормозах, если бы не было точно известно, что числовой символизм в «бретонской рубахе» все-таки существует. Например, в принятом на французском флоте в 1852 году стандарте тельняшка должна была составлять 21 полосу – по числу великих побед Наполеона. Однако это версия для «сухопутных крыс». 21 – это число успеха, удачи в культовой карточной игре моряков Vingt-et-un (она же – «Блэкджек», она же «Очко»). Нумерологическая составляющая в количестве полос была у голландцев и англичан.  Так, в середине XVII века команды кораблей, ангажированные голландской Ост-Индской компанией, предпочитали «бретонские свитера» с двенадцатью горизонтальными полосами – по числу ребер у человека. Таким образом, как объясняют некоторые знатоки морской традиции, моряки обманывали лихую судьбу, показывая, что они уже умерли и стали скелетами-призраками.
3. Как breton shirt стала «тельняшкой»
Русские моряки в Нью-Йорке в 1850-е гг. Пока без "морской души"

Русские моряки в Нью-Йорке, 1850-е. Еще без тельняшек

Впервые русский человек увидел тельняшку, скорее всего, во второй половине XVII века, когда в Холмогоры и Архангельск повадились голландские торговые суда. Морские волки из Нидерландов, наряду с англичанами, были главными законодателями мод в области морской амуниции. Не случайно Петр I полностью перенял для зарождавшегося русского флота голландскую морскую форму. Правда, без «бретонских рубашек». Последние фрагментарно появились в России в 40-50-ых годах XIX века: в тельняшках щеголяли моряки торгового флота, обменявшие или купившие их в каком-нибудь европейском порту.

Есть байка, что в 1868 году великий князь и адмирал Константин Николаевич Романов принимал экипаж фрегата «Генерал Адмирал». На встречу все моряки пришли в полосатых рубахах, купленными ими в Европе. Морские волки так расхвалили им функциональность и удобство полосатых фуфаек, что через несколько лет, в 1874 году, князь принес на подпись императору указ, официально включающий тельняшку в морскую амуницию.

4. Как родилась «морская душа»?
Однако культом тельняшка стала немного позднее. После русско-японской войны демобилизовавшиеся матросы заполнили русские города. Они напоминали жителей нью-йоркского Бронкса, только вместо хип-хопа они танцевали танцы, вроде «Яблочка», рассказывали о том, как сражались за Порт-Артур,  и искали приключения на свою голову. Главным атрибутом этих лихих матросиков, «душа нараспашку», являлась тельняшка, которую именно в то время стали называть «морская душой». Именно в это время произошло первое массовое знакомство «морской души» с коллективной Русской душей. Соединение же «двух одиноких душ», которое произошло в 1917 году, дала смесь, которая взорвала Россию. Большевики, которые активно использовали морячков в своем захвате власти в качестве естественной антисистемы к любому «сухопутному» порядку, в 1921 году, подавив Кронштадтский мятеж, окончательно избавили себя от нежелательной рефлексии «морской души».
5. Зачем тельняшка десантнику?

Прага, 10 сентября. Советские десантники маршируют по улице Праги. Дебют тельняшки ВДВ

Премьера тельняшки ВДВ в Праге, 1968 год

Тельняшка всегда связывалась с водной стихией, но никак не с воздушной. Как и почему  парашютист в голубом берете обзавелся тельняшкой? Неофициально в гардеробе десантников «бретонские рубашки» появились в 1959 году. Тогда их стали вручать за прыжок с парашютом на воду. Однако вряд ли эта  второстепенная традиция могла вырасти в «полосатый» культ, который со временем возник в ВДВ. Главным де культиватором тельняшки в ВДВ стал легендарный командующий ВДВ Василий Маргелов. Именно благодаря его неистовому энтузиазму полосатая фуфайка официально вошла в essentials гардероба десантника.

Похищению «морской души» «парашютистами» всячески сопротивлялся главнокомандующий ВМФ СССР Сергей Горшков. Однажды, согласно легенде, на одном совещании он вступил в открытую перепалку с Василием Маргеловым, назвав явление десантника в тельняшке неприятным словом «Анахронизм». Василий Филиппович тогда жестко осадил старого морского волка: «Я воевал в морской пехоте и знаю, что заслуживают десантники, а что — нет!»

Официальная премьера тельняшек с голубыми полосками пришлась на пражские события августа 1968 года: именно советские десантники в полосатых фуфайках сыграли решающую роль в прекращении Пражской весны. Тогда же состоялся дебют и знаменитых голубых беретов. Мало кто знает, что новый look десантников не был прописан ни одним официальным документом. Боевое крещение они получили по свободной воле «патриарха» ВДВ – без всякой лишней бюрократической волокиты. Знающие люди, умеющие читать между строк, увидели в пражском fashion-показе советских десантников скрытый вызов командующего ВДВ главнокомандующему ВМФ. Дело в том, что Маргелов увел у моряков не только тельняшку, но и берет.

Официальная премьера беретов была назначена на 7 ноября 1968 года – парад на Красной площади. Но главное – береты должны были быть черными и венчать головы подведомственных ВМФ морских пехотинцев. Право первой ночи ВМФ получил специальным Приказом Министерства Обороны СССР № 248 от 5 ноября 1963. Но пять лет тщательной подготовки пошли насмарку из-за пиратского fashion-рейда «десантуры», у которой тогда и формального права-то не было ни на ношение берета, ни на тельняшку. Легитимность новый наряд десантников получил почти через год после пражских событий благодаря Приказу МО СССР № 191 от 26 июля 1969, который ввел очередные правила ношения военной формы одежды. Кто бы посмел запретить бойцам ВДВ носить тельняшку и берет после того, как они фактически в одиночку продлили жизнь «развитому социализму» в Восточной Европе.

Корни страсти Василия Филипповича к атрибутам ВМФ злопыхатели видели в желании насолить оппоненту из ВМФ и ревностью к морской пехоте, в которой служил Маргелов во время войны. Хочется верить, что у командующего ВДВ были более серьезные причины – например, вера в суперсилу тельняшки, понимание «полосатой» души, о чем он узнал, когда бок о бок воевал с «клешёными» моряками во время войны.

6. "Нас мало, но мы в тельняшках"

Морские пехотинцы Великой Отечественной

«Полосатые дьяволы». Морские пехотинцы на Великой Отечественной

Это не пустая бравада. Горизонтальные полосы создает оптический эффект большего количества, чем он есть на самом деле. Интересно, что советских моряков и морских пехотинцев, которые участвовали в баталиях на суше во Время Второй мировой войны, немцы называли «полосатыми дьяволами». Этот эпитет связан не только с шокирующими боевыми качествами наших воинов, но и с западноевропейским архетипным сознанием. В Европе полосатая одежда на протяжении многих веков была уделом «проклятых»: ее обязаны были носить профессиональные палачи, еретики, прокаженные и прочие изгои общества, не имеющие прав горожанина.  Разумеется, явление советских моряков в тельняшках в «сухопутной» обстановке у неподготовленных немецких пехотинцев вызывало первобытный страх.

7. Что означают все эти цветные полоски?

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Сегодня практически каждый род войск в России имеет свою тельняшку с полосами уникального цвета. Майки с черными полосами носят морские пехотинцы и подводники, со светло-зелеными – пограничники, с краповыми  - спенцазовцы Внутренних Войск МВД, с васильковыми – бойцы Президентского полка и спецназа ФСБ, с оранжевыми – сотрудники МЧС и т.д.

Критерии выбора конкретного цвета конкретным родом войск, вероятно, является военной тайной. Хотя очень было бы любопытно узнать почему, скажем, бойцы спецназа ФСБ щеголяют в тельняшках с васильковыми полосками. Но пройдет время, и тайное все равно станет явным.

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