Информация в картинках

Информация в картинках

Инфографика

Война в Ливии и Сирии многим кажется странной и непонятной. И это действительно так, ведь «Исламское государство» (организация, запрещенная в России — Прим. ФАН) в принципе осуществляет идею, которая в культурном поле этого региона существует уже более двух тысяч лет. Это Персидская империя. И идея эта понятна и естественна: торговый транзит между Европой и Ближним Востоком. Транзит, который в свое время, кстати, стал основой появления и русского государства. Балтика, Днепр, Черное море. Возрождение проекта Трансиранского пролива, соединяющего Азовское море с Персидским заливом, следовательно, и с Индийским океаном может полностью перекроить географию мирового экономического пространства.

Каналы, проливы, газ и нефть, или Что убьет сирийскую интригу

20 августа 2016 г.

   Автор: Олег Денежка

Мировая торговля стала одной из основ социального прогресса. Разные народы обладали разными ресурсами и обменивались ими. Так, собственно, появилась экономика. Если вы помните советские учебники или даже читали Маркса, то помните простой пример: кто-то выращивал баранов, а кто-то делал топоры. Так появились деньги как условная обменная единица.

Ситуация не сильно изменилась с тех пор. По-прежнему государства используют специализацию для занятия определенных ниш в мировом рынке. Почти все электронные компоненты производятся в Индонезии. А вот продукты машиностроения и металлический прокат — в Европе. В том числе и России. Да, мы далеко не только нефть и газ, как нас пытаются в этом убедить.

Таким образом, торговый трафик между Европой, Америкой и Индокитаем является главными торговыми артериями. При этом мы, Россия, веками являемся заложниками использования проливов и каналов. И почти все они контролируются англичанами и турками. И уже несколько веков Россия борется с этой проблемой. С прямым выходом в мировой океан.

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Трансиранский канал

Иран: из врага в союзники

Россия воевала с Персией, начиная с 18 века. Кавказские войны. В алмазном фонде кремля хранится алмаз «Шах». Это алмаз индийского происхождения весом в 88,7 — одна из величайших ценностей персидских шахов. Передали его России в числе прочих даров российскому императору Николаю I правителем Персии Фетх Али-шахом после того, как в январе 1829 года в Тегеране произошло убийство русского посольства во главе с А.С.Грибоедовым.

А ведь именно Грибоедов был участником заключения выгоднейшего для России Туркманчайского мирного договора с Персией в 1828, который буквально взбесил англичан. Скорее всего, убийство Грибоедова было инспирировано Британией. Но даже эта провокация не помогла. Между Персией и Россией завязались тесные отношения.

Новый канал

Новый проект родился на рубеже XIX — XX веков. Практически тогда же, когда французы затеяли финансовую пирамиду с Суэцким каналом. Проделав масштабную изыскательную работу, выяснилось, что проект 700 километрового канала, использующего, в том числе, и ряд естественных рек, в которых требовалось лишь расчистить и углубить фарватер, вполне реально. Это был гораздо более выгодный проект, чем Суэц, но стороны не смогли договориться о юридическом статусе канала.

Петербург как основной инвестор настаивал на принципе экстерриториальности по аналогии с Суэцким и Панамским каналами (первый на тот момент принадлежал Британии и США). Персия в свою очередь считала, что более справедливо было бы разделить концессию 50% на 50%. Проект не состоялся.

В Персии начался длительный политический кризис, закончившийся лишь к 1925-му году. Династия Каджаров была свергнута и воцарилась династия Пехлеви. При этом государство получило новое название: Иран.

Снова к идее трансиранского канала вернулись во время Второй мировой войны в связи с пронацистской политикой Турции и угрозой взятия Суэцкого канала германо-итальянскими войсками. Во время Тегерана-43 вопрос поднимался на переговорах Сталина и шаха Мохаммеда Реза Пехлеви. Но и тогда британцам удалось сорвать этот проект.

Новая эпоха

Что представляет из себя Суэц? Это бесшлюзовый судоходный канал в Египте, соединяющий Средиземное и Красное моря. Зона канала считается условной границей между двумя материками, Африкой и Евразией. Кратчайший водный путь между Индийским океаном и акваторией Средиземного моря Атлантического океана (альтернативный маршрут протяженнее на 8 тыс. км). Суэцкий канал был открыт для судоходства 17 ноября 1869 года. Главные порты: Порт-Саид и Суэц.

Пролив имеет длину 195 километров, а самое узкое место пролива шириной около 54 километров. Глубина достигает 229 метров. Пролив разделен на два транспортных канала шириной около 2,5 километра каждый, отделенные друг от друга 5-километровой буферной зоной. На настоящий момент пролив является единственным морским путем, позволяющим экспортировать газ и нефть, добываемые в странах Персидского залива, в третьи страны — в частности, в Японию, США и страны Западной Европы.

Однако сегодня это канал, которым мы вынуждены пользоваться как единственным путем для связи с Индокитаем, перегружен, как кольцевая дорога в Москве. Трудно себе представить, но корабли там буквально толпятся, ожидая своей очереди. И проход через канал стоит недешево: нужно не только платить за него, но и оплачивать услуги лоцмана. Все это задерживает торговый трафик.

Новый Трансиранский канал будет выгоден не только России, но и Европе. Это увеличит торговый трафик в несколько раз и сократит путь от важнейших портов Европы к портам Индокитая более чем в два раза.

Мир меняется. И более стремительно, чем можно было ожидать.

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