Окружающий мир

Окружающий мир


Любимая природа

Любимая природа

Согласно опроса, проведённого среди независимых экспертов, плато Путорана является одним из самых красивейших мест в России, самое северное и одно из самых древних в мире плато вулканического происхождения.

Справка

Плато Путорана- сильно расчленённый горный массив, расположенный на северо-западе Среднесибирского плоскогорья.

На севере и западе плато обрывается крутым уступом (800 и более м.), в то время как южная и восточная части характеризуются пологими склонами. Максимальная высота плато — 1701 м, среди высочайших вершин горы Камень (1701 м.), Холокит (1542 м.), Котуйская (1510). На севере плато Путорана граничит с Таймырским полуостровом. Название Путорана в переводе с эвенкийского означает «озёра с крутыми берегами».

Площадь плато составляет 250 тыс. км² (сравнима с территорией Великобритании).

На территории плато расположен Путоранский государственный природный заповедник, признанный ЮНЕСКО памятником Всемирного наследия.

Административно плато расположено на северо-западе Красноярского края, занимая территорию Таймырского и Эвенкийского муниципальных районов.
Ближайший крупный населенный пункт — город Норильск.

Загадки плато Путорана и земля вернувшегося овцебыка

9 августа 2017 г.

     ИА ТАСС

О том, как объект всемирного природного наследия ЮНЕСКО площадью 2,5 млн гектаров стал одной из ключевых туристических территорий Таймыра.

Крупнейшая в России заповедная земля — «Заповедники Таймыра» — является одной из самых интересных для туристов территорий. Как сообщили ТАСС в дирекции заповедников, сейчас на уникальном озере Лама идет обустройство экологического лагеря, отрабатываются туристические маршруты и экотропы. По оценке директора «Заповедников Таймыра» Виктора Матасова, красноярская Арктика может привлечь до 80 тысяч туристов в год.

Плато Путорана

Плато Путорана © Денис Кожевников/ТАСС

Возможность развития экологического туризма в рамках законодательства и с учетом охранных зон отметил министр природных ресурсов и экологии России Сергей Донских во время своего недавнего посещения красноярской Арктики. По словам Матасова, привлечь путешественников может развитие инфраструктуры заповедников. «Туризм может стать одним из драйверов развития региона», — отметил он. Одной из ключевых территорий в этом смысле является плато Путорана, объект всемирного природного наследия ЮНЕСКО площадью 2,5 млн га.

Весной 2013 года три северных заповедника Сибири — Путоранский, Большой Арктический и Таймырский — были объединены в ФГБУ «Объединенная дирекция заповедников Таймыра». Ее площадь составляет почти 12 млн га.

Большой Арктический заповедник — крупнейший в России и в Евразии — создан в 1993 году. Его берега омывают два моря Северного Ледовитого океана: Карское и море Лаптевых. Заповедник «Путоранский» создан в 1988 году. Он также является одним из крупнейших в России и расположен в Заполярье, в средней части крупной горной страны — плато Путорана. Заповедник «Таймырский», вся территория которого находится в зоне сплошной многолетней мерзлоты, образован в 1979 году.

Таинственный мир плато Путорана

Как рассказала ТАСС представитель дирекции Екатерина Лисовская, сейчас активно осваиваются экологические маршруты в районе озера Лама. Так, в этом году совместно с Норильский епархией здесь создан православный экологический лагерь. Этот район на протяжении многих лет является одним из любимых мест отдыха жителей Норильска. По экспертной оценке, в летние месяцы на район озер Мелкое, Лама, Глубокое приходится около 10 тыс. посещений.

«Лама — это ворота Путорана, именно с этого озера начинается множество маршрутов, и сейчас они осваиваются», — сказала Лисовская.

Плато Путорана — огромная горная страна на севере Красноярского края, его территория сопоставима по размерам с Великобританией. С плато Путорана связаны многие предания северных народов. Говорят, где-то здесь спрятана легендарная Золотая баба — изготовленный из золота идол, языческая святыня сибиряков, за которой охотились различные исследователи и авантюристы, — и охраняют его эвенки.

Плато Путорана скрывает множество озер, рек и каньонов. Здесь самое большое количество водопадов в России. Озера Путорана в основном изолированы от внешнего мира, и рыба в каждом из них отличается от рыбы соседних водоемов.

«Это заповедная территория, и в центральные районы Путорана возможны только вертолетные туры в сопровождении наших сотрудников. Здесь много можно посмотреть. Сейчас популярен тур, начинающийся у Большого Иркиндинского водопада. Это очень красивое место, визитная карточка Путорана, здесь видны и горы, и реки, и водопад», — рассказала Лисовская.

Также туристам показывают стрелку рек Яктали и Дулисмар, где они сливаются двумя водопадами. "На обратном пути посещаем реку Мая-Ачин, которая на 42 километра длины имеет 47 препятствий, из них девять — водопадов. Именно здесь снимались эпизоды фильма «Территория», — отметила Лисовская.

Земля толсторога

По плато Путорана проходят пути миграции крупнейшей популяции дикого северного оленя, живут волки и медведи, лоси и рыси, многие другие виды животных. А еще, рассказал ТАСС Виктор Матасов, здесь обитает уникальный подвид снежного барана (толсторог). Эта популяция развивалась изолировано более 15 тысяч лет.

Толсторог занесен в Красные книги России и Красноярского края, основной угрозой для него являются браконьеры. Для защиты толсторогов в 1988 году был создан государственный природный заповедник «Путоранский». Сейчас ученые планируют расширить границы заповедника, так как большое количество толсторогов обитают восточнее них и являются мишенью для браконьеров.

Возвращение овцебыка

В июле на Таймыре стартовала масштабная научная экспедиция. Ученые на моторных лодках, квадроциклах, гидросамолете и вертолете исследуют его животный мир. По словам Матасова, предполагается провести тотальный учет белых медведей и морских млекопитающих, посчитать северных оленей и овцебыков, которые с помощью людей вернулись на север Сибири после многовекового отсутствия.

Овцебыки водились на Таймыре более двух тысяч лет назад, о чем свидетельствуют находки археологов. Их стада паслись по соседству с мамонтами и шерстистыми носорогами. Изменения климата и охота привели к исчезновению этих животных. Через 20 веков овцебыки вернулись на Таймыр.

Несколько стад были завезены из Канады и Соединенных Штатов Америки в семидесятые годы прошлого века. В 1982 году в районе реки Бикады на востоке Таймыра обитали всего 66 овцебыков. Сейчас эти животные распространились по огромным просторам арктического полуострова, животные заходят в горы Путорана. По данным на 2012 год, их популяция достигла девяти тысяч, по прогнозам, к 2020 году она может вырасти до 25–30 тысяч, в отдаленной перспективе — увеличится до 200 тысяч животных.

По словам начальника научного отдела «Заповедников Таймыра» Леонида Колпащикова, Таймыр стал местом накопления племенного материала для последующего расселения овцебыков в другие регионы. Родившихся на севере Красноярского края животных выпустили в нескольких районах республики Якутии и в Приполярном Урале. Сейчас в Якутии обитает популяция овцебыков численностью около тысячи особей, образовавшейся из завезенных животных.

Научные исследования

Мир Таймыра динамичен и постоянно изменяется. Так, легендарная розовая чайка, обитавшая ранее между Индигиркой и Колымой, стала обустраивать гнездовья на полуострове. Вот уже несколько десятилетий как здесь появилась птица гага, вдоль Хантайского залива уже встречается ондатра. А после экспериментов времен Хрущева северные моря и реки заселила горбуша (тихоокеанский лосось).

В реке Пясина горбуша стала второй по численности после чира. В планах ученых — провести мониторинг, чтобы понять, как пришелец с востока влияет на фоновые виды, такие как муксун, сиг, чир, гольцы.

Не останутся без внимания крупнейшие хищники русской Арктики — белые медведи. В 2018 году несколько самок планируют пометить с помощью спутниковых ошейников, чтобы проследить за их передвижением на Таймыре и ареалом обитания.

«Ошейники закуплены, планируем на следующий год пометить ими четыре-пять самок, чтобы проследить за их пространственными передвижениями», — сказал Матасов.

Операция пройдет весной, когда самки выходят из спячки. Для этого планируется зафрахтовать судно, которое доставит исследователей к местам обитания животных. Традиционно ошейники со спутниковыми передатчиками устанавливаются на самок белого медведя: самцы имеют другую форму головы и растут всю жизнь. Надевать ошейники на большие, постоянно увеличивающиеся шеи самцов, не имеет смысла.

Немного иллюстраций от Admin с просторов Рунета

Водопад на реке Иркингда


Уникальный путоранский снежный баран

Водопад Плато Путорана


Вид на озеро Лама с вытосоты 1500 метров

Картинки по запросу фото животные плато путорана

Картинки по запросу фото животные плато путорана

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