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Авиационно-космическая система «Спираль»- плод гения Главного конструктора Г. Е. Лозино-Лозинского, непревзойдённый шедевр космического ракетостроения. Казалось бы, сегодня мы знаем о Глебе Евгеньевиче Лозино-Лозинском достаточно много- создатель «Бурана», главный конструктор «Спирали», Генеральный конструктор авиационно-космической системы 9А-10485, более известной как МАКС... На самом деле, гораздо больше мы о нем не знаем — помимо «Бурана» и МАКС, под руководством Г.Е.Лозино-Лозинского в НПО «Молния» была проработана почти сотня (!) проектов, засекреченных до сих пор...

     Г.Е.Лозино-Лозинский

Система «Спираль» по замыслу Главного конструктора должна была состоять из орбитального самолёта, который по технологии воздушный старт выводился в космос гиперзвуковым самолётом-разгонщиком, а затем ракетной ступенью на орбиту. Мощный воздушный корабль-разгонщик (вес 52 т, длина 38 м, размах 16,5 м) должен был разгоняться до шестикратной скорости звука (6М), затем с его «спины» на высоте 28—30 км должен был стартовать 10-тонный пилотируемый орбитальный самолёт длиной 8 м и размахом 7,4 м.

«Самолёт-разгонщик предполагалось возможным использовать и как пассажирский самолёт-авиалайнер- его высокие скоростные характеристики позволили бы поднять скорости гражданской авиации».

Проект был фантастичен по конструкторской смелости и дальновидности. А если бы его удалось осуществить в те далекие годы, то возможно, что развитие космонавтики пошло по совершенно другим рельсам, чем это происходит теперь. Однако работы над проектом были прерваны после начала разработки более современного и казавшегося более перспективным проекта «Энергия-Буран». 

Американцы украли идею отечественного орбитального корабля

12 марта 2016 г.

Автор: Дмитрий Юров

Век ядерного оружия, свалившийся на человечество словно снег на голову, и бурное развитие авиационно-космической отрасли также отразились на облике вооруженных сил, как в Советском Союзе, так и в Соединенных Штатах Америки. Появление бомбардировщиков, обладающих огромной скоростью полета и ядерным оружием на борту, наглядно доказало, что боеприпасы специального назначения можно в считаные минуты доставить не только с помощью баллистической ракеты.

Несмотря на очевидные преимущества подобных схем размещения ядерного оружия, настоящей мечтой авиационных и многих других военных инженеров было создание специального орбитального корабля, стоящего за скобками оборонно-ракетного и воздушного уравнения. Именно таким, выходящим за рамки техническим средством по задумкам американских военных инженеров должен стать сложнейший авиационно-космический проект – орбитальный многоразовый корабль Dream Chaser, который сами американцы называют не иначе как «венцом авиационно-космической промышленности».

Мало кому известно, что не только технические решения, но и сам облик Dream Chaser практически полностью скопированы с советского многоразового орбитального корабля, проект которого был проработан в СССР еще в 60-е годы прошлого века.

Оседлать гиперзвук

О том, какие перспективы открывает использование оружия в космосе, специалисты профильной инженерии догадались давно. Космос неслучайно увлекал огромное число ученых, инженеров и других людей из смежных областей: именно там уникальные технические специалисты могли реализовать идеи, из которых в перспективе можно было получить абсолютное ударное вооружение, равного которому мир еще не видел. Понимание колоссального потенциала ракетопланов, способных передвигаться с чудовищными и недостижимыми для обычной авиации скоростями, к американским и советским инженерам пришло почти одновременно.

В Соединенных Штатах для изучения и опытного производства подобных летательных аппаратов была инициирована программа Dyna-Soar, или Dynamic Soarer, а в Советском Союзе проект получил название «Спираль» и задумывался как ответная мера на случай появления незваных гостей с орбиты. Советский многоразовый воздушно-орбитальный самолет (ВОС) с ракетным ускорителем поражал воображение: для системы даже был разработан специальный носитель – гиперзвуковой самолет-разгонщик, так называемый ГСР. Сложность системы, несмотря на внедрение действительно революционных технологий, на практике сводилась к минимуму: старт с разгонной платформы осуществлялся на скоростях около 400 километров в час, после чего гиперзвуковой самолет-разгонщик набирал нужную для старта высоту и скорость.

Третьим этапом было отделение орбитального самолета и его разгон с помощью ракетных двигателей. Основная сложность и уникальность технологий заключалась в типе используемого топлива. Мощный ракетный двигатель орбитального самолета работал на фтороводородном топливе.

«Уникальность состава топлива заключалась в том, что фтороводородная смесь была лучшим решением, которое можно было придумать ради достижения максимального КПД силовой установки. Из всех теоретически возможных вариантов состава топлива именно фтороводородное топливо было лучшим», –рассказал в интервью «Звезде» историк космонавтики и ракетостроения, кандидат технических наук Вадим Лукашевич.

Применением подобного топлива советские инженеры-химики решили сразу несколько проблем: обеспечили питание силовой установки топливным, сравнительно стабильным составом и умудрились получить КПД силовой установки, близкий к 100%. Практически идеальная «разгонная» схема, несмотря на очевидные плюсы, имела и существенный недостаток – высокую токсичность смеси.

«Чтобы понять, насколько состав был токсичен, представьте себе цианистый калий. Так вот, цианистый калий по сравнению с фтороводородной смесью для ракетного ускорителя – практически сахар, который можно добавлять в чай», – отметил Лукашевич. Использование жидкого фтора в качестве окислителя даже сейчас, спустя десятилетия после начала работ над проектом «Спираль», у специалистов, занятых проблемами энергетики, вызывает неподдельное восхищение.

Подобные составы топлива вкупе с проработанной конструкцией самолета-разгонщика позволяли орбитальному самолету стартовать с борта ГСР, словно с огромного трамплина: согласно расчетам, отделение орбитального корабля должно было происходить на высоте 25–26 километров и скорости 6–6,5 тысячи километров в час. В 6,5 раза быстрее скорости звука.

Удар из космоса

После отделения от носителя, разгона и набора высоты проблемы для инженеров-конструкторов, работавших над «Спиралью», только начинались. Специалисты поясняют, что огромная сложность заключалась еще и в спасении летчика уникального орбитального самолета в случае катастрофы или любой другой непредвиденной ситуации. Однако и с этой задачей советской инженерной школе удалось справиться: «Спираль» проект больше авиационный, чем космический, и спасать летчика в том случае, если угроза его жизни будет существовать, решили «по-самолетному».

Для спасения экипажа с орбиты была разработана специальная капсула, которая в случае нештатной ситуации «отстреливалась» от фюзеляжа орбитального истребителя. Применение подобной схемы эвакуации было оправдано не только в условиях космоса, но и сулило отличные шансы на выживание летчика на гиперзвуковых скоростях в воздушном пространстве, ведь спасение экипажа больше не осуществлялось путем выброса человека за борт летательного аппарата на скорости, значительно превышающей скорость звука.

Похожая система спасения была применена американскими авиационными инженерами, внедрившими ее в два бомбардировщика: фронтовой F-111 и экспериментальный высотный бомбардировщик XB-70 «Валькирия», скорость полета которого втрое превышала скорость звука. Вопрос выживания в космическом бою, даже в случае поражения, для летчика «Спирали» был решен.

«Этот способ, как и многие другие технические решения, главным конструктором Глебом Лозино-Лозинским был определен как основополагающий», – поясняет Вадим Лукашевич. По его словам, главный конструктор «Спирали» с самого начала знал, каким может быть высокоманевренный бой в космосе, и вопрос выживания экипажа прорабатывал самым тщательным образом.

«Что такое ближний воздушный бой, мы все прекрасно знаем. Знаем также, что такое бой на средних дистанциях, знаем, что из себя представляет дальний радиолокационный бой. В случае с проектом «Спираль» речь шла о космическом бое и Лозино-Лозинский уже тогда выстраивал процесс работы орбитального корабля с точки зрения его работы в космосе», – добавил Лукашевич.

Модификации советского космического «пограничника» – одна из самых интересных глав в истории проекта. На базе орбитального самолета были созданы дневной фоторазведчик, оснащенный фотоаппаратурой с высокой четкостью, радиолокационный разведчик с внешней разворачиваемой антенной, орбитальный перехватчик для уничтожения космических объектов и самый страшный для потенциального противника вариант исполнения – ударный орбитальный самолет.

В качестве вооружения для ударного орбитального самолета было решено использовать ракету класса «космос-земля» с ядерной боеголовкой. О возможностях такого вооружения многие эксперты, в том числе и на Западе, говорят с придыханием, ведь противник, с которым орбитальный самолет «Спираль» должен был бороться, – ни много ни мало авианосец.

«Ракета массой почти в две тонны (1 700 килограммов) несла ядерную боеголовку, попадание которой гарантированно уничтожало авианосец даже с учетом отклонения от цели в 200 метров», – указал Лукашевич. Уничтожать заранее разведанную цель с уже известными координатами советский орбитальный самолет мог на первом же витке. Второй виток орбитальному самолету нужен был лишь для того, чтобы проконтролировать выполнение боевой задачи.

Возвращение домой

Несмотря на то что в ходе работ над проектом орбитального самолета разработчикам приходилось решать сразу десяток проблем, не менее важным было продумать процесс возврата корабля обратно на Землю. Большинство спускаемых космических аппаратов возвращаются на Землю по так называемой «баллистической» траектории, в то время как «Спираль» – летательный аппарат с крыльями, и процесс спуска с орбиты аппарата с подобной конструкцией – настоящая головная боль для любого инженера. Обтекаемость спускаемого аппарата очень сильно зависит от скорости спуска.

Сложность спуска орбитального корабля «Спираль» заключалась еще и в том, что самолет с подобной аэродинамикой должен был устойчиво управляться на всем участке спуска и во всем диапазоне скоростей. Условно говоря, перед разработчиками встала задача создать систему контроля, которая обеспечивала бы полет корабля «носом вперед» и правильную ориентацию на огромных гиперзвуковых – 17–20 махов, сверхзвуковых и дозвуковых скоростях.

Специалисты поясняют, что защитить орбитальный аппарат на таких скоростях от набегающего потока воздуха полностью невозможно. Для решения проблемы контроля самолета на этапе спуска было решено защитить критически важные зоны с помощью специальной теплозащиты. Вроде той плитки, что можно наблюдать на корпусе «Буранов» и «Спейс-Шаттлов». Однако обеспечение корабля теплозащитой – не единственная трудность при спуске.

Необходимо было заставить самолет на всем протяжении спуска «тереться» об набегающий поток воздуха только теплозащитой. «В «Буране» эта проблема решалась так: помимо работы вспомогательных систем, обеспечивающих правильное положение корабля при спуске, помимо специальной формы крыла и прочих механизмов, на всем участке спуска с орбиты до высоты примерно в 15 километров «Буран» подруливал маневровыми двигателями», – подчеркнул Лукашевич.

Проблема со спуском «Спирали» заключалась в другом: не существовало в начале 60-х программных возможностей и сложной электроники, с помощью которой можно было бы вмешаться в процесс спуска аппарата с орбиты. Чтобы обойти эту проблему, главный конструктор проекта Глеб Лозино-Лозинский принимает гениальное в своей простоте решение: крылья треугольной формы оснащают складными консолями.

Советскому гению удалось настроить процесс самобалансировки корабля при спуске таким образом, чтобы процедура проходила при полном невмешательстве летчика: на участке спуска с наивысшей скоростью консоли крыла автоматически складывались, и основной «удар» от набегающего воздуха принимали носовая часть и днище спускаемого корабля. Гениальнейшее решение по центровке спускаемого корабля было достигнуто без использования сложной электроники.

«Бегущий за мечтой»

«БОР-4» – беспилотный орбитальный ракетоплан, создание которого базировалось на результатах программы «Спираль», в ходе одного из испытательных полетов крайне непросто приводнился и в процессе извлечения советскими моряками из воды был сфотографирован австралийскими военными, наблюдавшими за необычной активностью советского ВМФ возле государственных границ. Чуть позднее австралийские военные передали снимки в ЦРУ, а те в свою очередь привлекли к процессу по определению типа корабля специалистов из NASA.

Фотографии, добытые невероятной ценой, несколько десятков лет нигде и никак не фигурировали, пока в прессу не просочилась информация о том, что одним из кораблей, выбранных для доставки грузов на МКС, станет один из участников конкурсного отбора, многоразовый космический корабль Dream Chaser, как две капли воды похожий на советский «БОР». Десятки лет для прагматичных американцев, обставивших Советский Союз в лунной гонке, не прошли даром.

Одни специалисты поясняют, что, скопировав советский экспериментальный ракетоплан, разработчики американской версии челнока – инженеры компании Sierra Nevada – вытащили настоящий счастливый билет. Порождение холодной войны, как его окрестили сами американцы, вполне может послужить космической программе США верой и правдой, тем более что американцам не пришлось изобретать велосипед и отстраивать космический корабль с нуля. Несмотря на то что доставка астронавтов и грузов значится как основная задача орбитального корабля, NASA может быть не единственным заинтересованным в проекте американским ведомством.

Впору упомянуть и о том, что «Буран», некогда разработанный и реализованный советской промышленностью, не предполагал гражданского использования. Специалисты Sierra Nevada, по словам историка космонавтики и ракетостроения Вадима Лукашевича, были шокированы, когда смоделированный по фотографиям планер летательного аппарата впервые «продули» в аэродинамической трубе.

«Если провести аналогию с открытием этой аэродинамической схемы американцами, то можно привести простой пример. Вы находите пленку, просматриваете ее, а на ней всего лишь два кадра. Вы стоите и восторгаетесь тем, какую композицию вы увидели и как вам это все нравится. Вот примерно так же повели себя и американцы: увидели на пленке два кадра в виде аэродинамической модели, а вперед заглянуть не подумали. А на пленке между тем, помимо двух кадров, оказался двухчасовой фильм», – иронизирует Лукашевич.

По словам специалистов, американский Dream Chaser – ни много ни мало неудачно скопированный советский «БОР», воссоздать который у квалифицированных инженеров получилось лишь отчасти. «Этот корабль имеет крылья, форму и внешне похож на «БОР», но вот реализовать американцам удалось лишь один процент реального потенциала советского орбитального корабля», – отмечает Лукашевич.  Вполне вероятно, что, построив собственный орбитальный аппарат на основе советских наработок, американцы начали гордиться тем, что программа подобного масштаба была реализована именно в США.

Однако эксперты, инженеры и материаловеды сразу же вносят ясность: те процессы, которые американцы с огромным трудом попытались воссоздать за десятки лет на основе «обломков холодной войны», советская промышленность и инженерная элита прошли еще в 70-х годах прошлого века. Многоразовый американский орбитальный корабль точно так же, как и его советский прародитель, будет стартовать со специального носителя и возвращаться на обычную взлетно-посадочную полосу.

Несмотря на явную схожесть с советским кораблем, американским инженерам еще только предстоит испытать «Бегущего за мечтой» в реальных условиях и решить те же проблемы, которые вставали перед инженерами проекта «Спираль» в Советском Союзе. Одно в истории c кораблем Dream Chaser останется неизменным: реализация проекта по возобновлению производства многоразовых космических челноков рискует обернуться для американцев полным провалом, ведь уникальные технологические и конструктивные особенности советского проекта «Спираль», такие как складные консоли крыла, уникальная теплозащита и самобалансировка, в первозданном виде, скорее всего, реализованы не будут.

Безусловно, в Sierra Nevada уже знают о том, что крыло у советского орбитального самолета подвижное, и вполне могут попытать счастье создать собственный образец со схожей конфигурацией. Однако то, что сейчас с огромным восторгом воспринимается западным обывателем как «суперсовременная» космическая программа, по факту недоработанный и крайне нестабильный продукт, который нуждается в огромных вложениях и большой инженерной работе. Подкладывает ложку дегтя в американскую космическую бочку с медом и мнение экспертов.

«Статическая конфигурация корабля от Sierra Nevada говорит о том, что их корабль не самобалансируется во всем диапазоне гиперзвука –он оптимален только для какого-то очень узкого диапазона полетов. К примеру, он прекрасно летает на скорости в 12 махов. На этом все», – заключил Лукашевич. Эксперт отмечает также, что сбалансировать полет во всем диапазоне скоростей можно с помощью сложной электроники, но такой метод имеет и свое слабое место: чем больше чувствительной электроники находится под критической нагрузкой, тем ниже надежность всей системы в целом.

Скопировав советский аппарат американские специалисты не поняли главного: корабль имеет не статическую, а изменяемую конфигурацию, за счет которой и способен творить «чудеса на гиперзвуке». В сухом остатке получается, что десятилетия, потраченные американскими специалистами на копирование советского орбитального корабля на деле оборачиваются осознанием факта, что, потратив сотни миллионов долларов, держава, осуществившая высадку на Луну, создала узконаправленный ракетоплан, многие режимы полета которого вполне могут обернуться трагедией для его создателей.

Фото: NASA/ Bernhard Grohl/Wikimedia/ buran.ru/ Роскосмос

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145 комментариев на «Орбитальный многоразовый корабль «Dream Chaser» США: Идея, украденная у России. Неудачное копирование»

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