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Армия и Флот

АО «Научно-технический центр радиоэлектронной борьбы» разработана и может быть доведена до уровня начальной боевой готовности в течение ближайших месяцев — пары лет система РЭБ «Поле-21» - сеть наземных комплексов радиоэлектронного противодействия, причём как мобильных на колёсном шасси, так и стационарных, размещённых на городской и промышленной инфраструктуре, включая дымоходы теплоэлектростанций и различные антенно-мачтовые сооружения.

Данная система представлена огромным количеством разнесённых передающих антенн-излучателей радиоэлектронных помех Р-340РП, размещённых на вышеуказанных типах сооружений.

«Поле-21» разительно отличается от других средств РЭБ тем, что идентифицировать её, в отличие от других мобильных систем РЭБ, практически невозможно: компактные излучающие модули никак не выделяются на фоне антенн GSM и различных АМС, которые в одном только ЗВО присутствуют в количестве нескольких десятков тысяч единиц.

Какие западные средства воздушного нападения первыми пропадут в «Поле» российской РЭБ?

30 августа 2016 г.

      Автор: Евгений Даманцев

Командный пункт одной системы радиоэлектронных помех «Поле-21» может управлять 100 антенными постами-передатчиками помех. Каждый передающий пост имеет сектор излучения 125 градусов по азимуту и 25 градусов по углу места. Существующие размеры зоны подавления антеннами-излучателями Р-340РП одного поста составляют 150×150 км, но после увеличения мощности могут и расшириться. Один компьютеризированный пункт управления постами имеет мощность около 600 Вт

Об уникальных качествах отечественных средств радиоэлектронной борьбы, равно как и о боевых способностях систем ПВО, уже давно ходят легенды. И легенды эти вполне оправданы событиями, произошедшими во время войн во Вьетнаме, Ираке и Югославии, когда были сбиты десятки «Фантомов», «Стратофортрессов», а затем даже такие продуманные «хищники», как малозаметный F-117A «Nighthawk», перехваченный над Югославией, и уничтоженные «Осами» и «Шилками» над Ираком «Томагавки». Что же касается непосредственно радиоэлектронной борьбы, то последний нашумевший инцидент произошёл в сирийской компании сразу после развёртывания ВКС России на авиабазе Хмеймим. В начале октября 2015 года в её окрестности был доставлен мобильный комплекс РЭБ «Красуха-4», который вместе с ЗРК С-400 «Триумф» в прямом смысле слова закрыл воздушное пространство над северо-западной частью Сирийской Арабской Республики для полётов тактической авиации ВВС Турции и ОВВС НАТО. «Красуха-4» дополнила «Триумф» способностью полного подавления должной работы бортовых радиотехнических средств ударной авиации коалиции, которая могла бы предпринять попытку прорыва в низковысотном режиме.

Произошедшее настолько озадачило командующего ВВС США в Европе генерала Фрэнка Горенка, что он поспешил насторожить альянс о способности ВС России реализовывать самую передовую западную стратегическую концепцию по ограничению и воспрещению доступа и манёвра «A2/AD», которую НАТО на протяжении долгого времени безуспешно пытается применить по отношению к ВС России в Восточной Европе. Но ширина воздушных коридоров, с которых возможен массированный удар стратегическими крылатыми ракетами морского и воздушного базирования НАТО, зачастую превышает охватываемые наземными средствами РЭБ участки воздушного пространства нашей страны. А как известно, полёт ракет и авиации противника в режиме прорыва ПВО на малой высоте практически устраняет возможности любого комплекса РЭБ наземного базирования на дальности более 30-40 км из-за понятия радиогоризонта. Это обыкновенная физика, против которой не попрёт ни одна наземная система радиоэлектронного противодействия. А есть ещё и рельеф, осложняющий ситуацию ещё больше. Нахождение самолётов радиоэлектронной борьбы в зоне прорыва определённого участка воздушного направления зависит исключительно от тактической воздушной обстановки, т.е. их в самый ответственный момент может и не быть. Единственное решение вопроса может быть в следующем.

Необходимо создание густой сети наземных комплексов радиоэлектронного противодействия, причём как мобильных на колёсном шасси, так и стационарных, размещённых на городской и промышленной инфраструктуре, включая дымоходы теплоэлектростанций и различные антенно-мачтовые сооружения. Их средняя высота обычно колеблется в пределах 60-150 м, что даёт отличный радиогоризонт, составляющий 50 и более километров, и весь низковысотный участок воздушного пространства находится в зоне покрытия устройств РЭП, расположенных на таких сооружениях. Также для этих целей прекрасно подходят стандартные вышки сотовой связи, которые находятся даже в тех местах, где прямая видимость с городских антенно-мачтовых сооружений отсутствует.

Подобная сеть радиоэлектронного противодействия уже разработана и может быть доведена до уровня начальной боевой готовности в течение ближайших месяцев — пары лет. Речь идёт о наиболее перспективном проекте АО «Научно-технический центр радиоэлектронной борьбы» — «Поле-21». Данная система представлена огромным количеством разнесённых передающих антенн-излучателей радиоэлектронных помех Р-340РП, размещённых на вышеуказанных типах сооружений. Они будут формировать так называемую интеллектуально управляемую распределённую апертуру, где на максимальную мощность излучения радиоэлектронных помех будет работать та часть излучателей, в зонах которых окажется наиболее многочисленный прорывной эшелон средств воздушного нападения противника. Другими словами, в системе РЭБ «Поле-21» будет реализован ещё и принцип оптимизации энергетического распределения, позволяющий наиболее верно использовать энергетические ресурсы.

Важность наличия этого принципа диктуют такие побочные эффекты Р-340РП, как подавление российских потребителей систем глобального позиционирования ГЛОНАСС и GPS, ведь основная задача «Поля-21» — выведение из строя всех элементов высокоточного оружия, имеющих устройства спутниковой коррекции по каналу GPS. Избирательное использование максимальной мощности излучения даст возможность сохранить GPS/ГЛОНАСС-координацию многочисленным юнитам и гражданским потребителям данных систем, вблизи основных участков радиоэлектронного подавления. Постановка помех может осуществляться и в строго заданных секторах пролёта средств высокоточного оружия за счёт использования определённых излучателей и их поэтапного переключения. Благодаря этому негативное воздействие на дружественных потребителей минимизируется. Но как для энергетического распределения, так и для секторного подавления, «Поле» должно опираться на информацию низковысотных радиолокационных обнаружителей и самолётов ДРЛОиУ, передающих наземной системе точные координаты сопровождаемых летательных аппаратов противника. И более того, «Поле-21» с его хаотичным распределением десятков-сотен передатчиков помех требует сверхпроизводительного пункта боевого управления, где компьютеризированные средства должны получить наиболее чёткие и обновляемые топографические карты обширных территорий функционирования системы для максимального покрытия с минимальными побочными эффектами.

Согласно информации от источника в Минобороны России, сейчас элементы системы «Поле-21» уже устанавливаются на различные объекты, и сеть становится плотнее и эффективней: её покрытие увеличивается буквально каждый день. Излучатели радиоэлектронных помех Р-340РП интегрируются в антенно-мачтовые устройства сотовой связи GSM, при этом запитка производится от тех же источников, что и GSM-антенны, что значительно облегчает монтаж комплексов, ремонтные работы на объектах, а также ведёт к снижению общей массы дополнительного оборудования и кабелей питания для «Поля». В случае выхода из строя основных излучателей в качестве резервных антенн могут применяться и сами GSM-антенны, апертура которых отлично подходит для частот, используемых Р-340РП. Данные элементы осуществляют постановку помех на частотах от 1176 до 1575 МГц (L-диапазон), куда, помимо GPS/ГЛОНАСС, входят ещё и навигационные системы «BeiDou» и «Galileo». Последняя, как известно, может являться резервной радионавигационной системой НАТО.

Интересным качеством системы «Поле-21» является невысокая мощность комплексов Р-340РП. Для более-менее устойчивого подавления всех приёмников вышеуказанных радионавигационных систем в радиусе 80 км достаточно мощности, эквивалентной автомобильной радиостанции, т.е. всего 20 Вт. А увеличив мощность ещё на 10-15 Вт, можно добиться эффективной дезорганизации средств воздушного нападения на средневысотном участке (2-5 км) при дальности более 100 км.

СПИСОК ЭЛЕМЕНТОВ ВЫСОКОТОЧНОГО ОРУЖИЯ ОВС СТРАН НАТО, КОТОРЫЕ «ПОПАДАЮТСЯ В СЕТИ» «ПОЛЯ-21», ДОСТАТОЧНО ВЕЛИК, ЧТО МОЖЕТ КОРЕННЫМ ОБРАЗОМ ИЗМЕНИТЬ СИТУАЦИЮ НА ТВД В МОМЕНТ ПОПЫТКИ ПРОВЕДЕНИЯ СТРАТЕГИЧЕСКОЙ ВОЗДУШНО-КОСМИЧЕСКОЙ НАСТУПАТЕЛЬНОЙ ОПЕРАЦИИ

Зависимость вооруженных сил западных государств от систем глобального позиционирования просто огромна. Уже практически невозможно привести пример крупнокалиберного корректируемого реактивного снаряда РСЗО, высокоточной авиабомбы или крылатой ракеты большой дальности, которые не были бы оснащены высокоточным GPS-приёмником для возможности резервной корректировки траектории в случае, когда головка самонаведения забита радиоэлектронными или оптико-электронными помехами, а оптический корреляционный сенсор вышел из строя.

К самым распространённым и многочисленным комплексам высокоточного оружия, использующим GPS-коррекцию, можно отнести авиационный комплект аэродинамического управления со спутниковой корректировкой JDAM. Это «умное» снаряжение превращает стандартные свободнопадающие бомбы типа Mk-82/83/84 в высокоточные управляемые авиабомбы GBU-31/32/34/35/38, способные ударять по объектам противника с точностью КВО около 10-15 метров на удалении до 30 км, в зависимости от скорости и высоты полёта носителя. Попадая в купол радиоэлектронных помех системы «Поле-21», ИНС свободнопадающей «GBU» перестаёт получать поправки от GPS-спутника относительно своей траектории полёта, бомба медленно меняет курс из-за встречных и боковых порывов ветра, а скорректироваться уже не может. Вот и весь JDAM отправляется «в топку»: промах может составить уже не 15, а все 350 или 850 метров, что также зависит от высоты и скорости сброса, а также атмосферных условий. Ни о каком уничтожении укреплённой цели в этом случае не может быть и речи.

Второй вид высокоточного оружия, теряющийся в пелене радиоэлектронного противодействия «Поля» — различные модификации тактических и стратегических крылатых ракет. Прежде всего, к ним относятся: американские тактические КР большой дальности AGM-158A/B «JASSM/JASSM-ER» (дальность от 360 до 1200 км), ТКРВБ KEPD-350 «TAURUS», а также модификации стратегических КР «Томагавк» корабельного и подводного базирования — UGM/RGM-109C Block III (дальность 1850 км), UGM/RGM-109D Block III (дальность 1250 км) и UGM/RGM-109E Block IV (дальность 2400 км). На маршевом участке траектории все эти ракеты во многом зависят от коррекции по GPS-каналу. Когда они попадут в зону действия сети «Поле-21», связь со спутниками будет утеряна и малейшая погрешность бортовой оптико-электронной корреляционной системы TERCOM может привести потере ракеты ещё задолго до подлёта к цели.

К третьему виду высокоточного вооружения, подавляемого комплексами Р-340РП, можно отнести современный управляемый реактивный снаряд M30 GMLRS (и его более дальнобойную версию ER MLRS), предназначенный для запуска с боевых машин ПУ M270 MLRS и M142 HIMARS, а также 3 наиболее высокоточные версии оперативно-тактических баллистических ракет семейства ATACMS, которые оснащаются GPS-приёмниками, — MGM-140B, MGM-164A и MGM-164B. При этом возможности по подавлению GPS-модулей управления реактивными снарядами M30 GMLRS у «Поля-21» гораздо выше, чем по радионавигационным приёмникам ОТБР ATACMS. Всё дело в том, что M30 летят по более настильной траектории, на меньших высотах, где действие радиоэлектронных помех от Р-340РП продолжается оставаться достаточно высоким, баллистические же ракеты MGM-164A/B поднимаются в верхние слои стратосферы, и на нисходящем участке траектории на скоростях более 3М очень быстро преодолевают «помеховой» участок. Учитывая снаряжение БЧ ATACMS в виде самонаводящихся боевых элементов P31 BAT, способных наводится на инфракрасное излучение наземной бронетехники, становится понятно, что хирургическая точность этим баллистическим ракетам и не нужна. В итоге ракета отклоняется примерно на 400-500 м (работа GPS нарушается только на коротком завершающем участке полёта) и СПБЭ, разбросанные на высоте в несколько километров, могут спокойно обеспечить самонаведение, невзирая на данное некритическое отклонение.

Оказывает действие «Поле-21» и на навигационные возможности беспилотных летательных аппаратов и боевой авиации. Ослеплённые помехами GPS-приёмники тактических ударных истребителей и стратегических бомбардировщиков B-1B, действующих в режиме следования рельефу местности, не позволят успешно провести операцию, поскольку бортовые РЛС, предназначенные для самостоятельного поиска и уничтожения наземных целей, также будут подавляться другими комплексами РЭБ типа «Автобаза» и «Красуха-4». В лучшем случае мощная РЛС AN/APQ-164 ракетоносца B-1B сможет картографировать земную поверхность лишь на малую дистанцию, позволяя как можно быстрее покинуть воздушное пространство нашего государства с помощью облёта опасных рубежей ПВО, засечённых системой предупреждения об облучении комплекса обороны AN/ALQ-161. Огромная часть манипуляций на театре военных действий XXI века производится при участии системы GPS, и невозможность её правильной работы приведёт к серьёзному изменению прогнозируемой боевой обстановки.

Система РЭБ «Поле-21» имеет большой модернизационный потенциал. Несколько раз мы возвращались к рассмотрению возможности разработки и серийного производства дирижаблей дальнего радиолокационного обнаружения и управления для оперативного обнаружения низколетящих малозаметных СКР и БПЛА и целеуказания зенитно-ракетным комплексам дальнего радиуса действия. По аналогичной концепции можно поступить и с «Полем-21», кроме того, стандартные излучающие радиоэлектронные помехи антенны могут быть заменены на АФАР-излучатели, каждый из которых способен прицельно подавлять отдельные СВН или их группы в узком секторе воздушного пространства. Размещение на дирижабле увеличит радиогоризонт до нескольких сотен километров, сделав «Поле-21» в десятки раз продуктивней над удалёнными территориями, где вышки сотовых операторов и другая связная инфраструктура ещё не возведена.

«Поле-21» разительно отличается от других средств РЭБ и тем, что идентифицировать её, в отличие от других мобильных систем РЭБ, практически невозможно: компактные излучающие модули никак не выделяются на фоне антенн GSM и различных АМС, которые в одном только ЗВО присутствуют в количестве нескольких десятков тысяч единиц. Командование НАТО будет почти не осведомлено о точках развёртывания элементов Р-340РП, и даже самые продвинутые западные средства радиоэлектронной разведки навряд ли поправят ситуацию.

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