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Стартовый комплекс крылатых ракет Club-K: русская шкатулка с секретом

8 июля 2016 г.

    Автор: Олег Денежка

В современной войне выигрывает не тот, кто сильнее, а тот, кто незаметнее. Незаметность — это лучшая броня. Какую бы прочную защиту вы ни придумали, на нее всегда найдется еще более гигантский снаряд. А вот цель, которую не видят, поразить практически невозможно. Нельзя попасть туда — «не зная куда». И российский стартовый комплекс крылатых ракет Club-K — именно такая цель. Невидимая.

В русских народных сказках шапка-невидимка была едва ли не самым главным и желанным «гаджетом». Она давала герою сказки неизмеримые преимущества перед противником. Да и в реальности, с приходом на поле боя оружия массового поражения (а к нему можно причислить не только ядерное, бактериологическое или отравляющее, но и обычное стрелковое оружие) умение спрятаться стало в военном деле едва ли не главным, стратегическим аспектом.

Именно этим руководствовались создатели контейнерного комплекса ракетного оружия Club-K, размещенного в стандартном 20- и 40-футовом морском контейнере. Представьте себе мощное тактическое оружие, которое находится среди сотен миллионов гражданских транспортных упаковок, похожих как близнецы. Помните об иголке в стоге сена? Ее обнаружить легче.

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CLUB-K

 

Как спрятать то, что спрятать невозможно

С самого начала использования ракетного ядерного оружия перед конструкторами встала дилемма: оружие было громоздким и сложным в эксплуатации, что требовало довольно серьезной инфраструктуры. То есть спрятать даже одну пусковую установку было сложнее, чем танковую дивизию.

Конечно же, первым и очевидным решением было сделать пусковые комплексы максимально подвижными. Так родились мобильные морские и наземные комплексы. В первом случае это были, прежде всего, подводные ракетоносцы (например самая большая в мире советская подводная лодка проекта 941 «Акула»), а во втором —наземные комплексы (к примеру, один из самых удачных в мире советских комплексов средней дальности РСД-10 «Пионер»).

Но подвижность решала лишь часть проблем. Эти стартовые комплексы трудно было засечь во время движения в ходе боевого дежурства, но их места базирования, где они обслуживались и перезаряжались, оставались демаскирующим фактором.

Разработчикам удалось найти идеальное решение это проблемы. Летом 1960 года в рамках теоретической проработки в США была проведена операция «Большая звезда». Целью программы была отработка возможности транспортировки в стартовой готовности твердотопливных межконтинентальных баллистических ракет «Минитмен». Они не нуждались в предстартовой заправке, были устойчивы (в отличие от жидкотопливных ракет) к вибрации и тряске в движении, могли стартовать прямо с движущейся железнодорожной платформы.

Но в США эта инициатива не получила развития. В 1986 году идея железнодорожного развертывания была принята для новой американской тяжелой МБР LGM-118A Peacekeeper, также известной как MX. Но, несмотря на долгую проработку (до начала 90-х), она была сочтена слишком дорогой и бесперспективной. А вот в СССР идею оценили.

13 января 1969 года в Минобороны СССР был подписан приказ «О создании подвижного боевого железнодорожного ракетного комплекса (БЖРК) с ракетой РТ-23». Главными конструкторами БЖРК стали академики-братья Владимир и Алексей Уткины. Владимир, специалист по твердотопливной тематике, проектировал ракету-носитель. Алексей же проектировал стартовый комплекс, а также вагоны для поезда-ракетоносца. По замыслу разработчиков, БЖРК, который получил название «Молодец», должен был составлять основу группировки ответного удара, поскольку обладал повышенной живучестью и с большой вероятностью мог уцелеть после нанесения противником первого удара.

Производил комплекс, который, из-за своей неотличимости от обычного железнодорожного состава, стал самым настоящим кошмаром для генералов НАТО, Павлоградский механический завод «Южмаш». Ныне это Украина. И это немаловажно.

Дело в том, что согласно договору СНВ-2, подписанному в 1993 году, Россия должна была снять с вооружения ракеты РТ-23 всех модификаций до 2003 года. На это время Российская Федерация имела 12 ядерных поездов с 36 пусковыми установками. Для их утилизации на Брянском ремонтном заводе даже была смонтирована специальная «разделочная» линия и на протяжении 2003—2007 годов были уничтожены все поезда и пусковые установки, кроме двух разукомплектованных и установленных в качестве экспонатов в музее железнодорожной техники на Варшавском вокзале Санкт-Петербурга и в Техническом музее «АвтоВАЗ».

Сейчас этот мобильный потенциал ракетных войск стратегического назначения Вооруженных Сил РФ решено возродить. Новый комплекс уже разработан и получил имя «Баргузин». Однако то, что его предшественник БЖРК «Молодец» разрабатывался и изготавливался на предприятии, которое ныне почти полностью уничтожено на Украине, усложняет задачу. И найдено еще одно решение, которое, по сути, развивает идею «ядерных поездов».

«Шанхайский сюрприз»

Сувенирные шкатулки с необычными вложениями, которые изготавливали в Китае в прошлом веке, называли «шанхайским сюрпризом». Когда вы открывали крышку, оттуда с резким звуком выскакивала на пружинке забавная фигурка чертика. Стартовый комплекс Club-K, размещенный в обычном морском контейнере, — это самый настоящий «шанхайский сюрприз». Но выскакивает оттуда не чертик, а самый настоящий черт — крылатые ракеты серии «Калибр»: противокорабельные ракеты 3М-54КЭ, 3М-54КЭ1 и ракета для поражения наземных целей 3М-14КЭ. А также новейшая противокорабельная крылатая ракета Х-35УЭ.

Впервые ракетная система Club-K была представлена российским ОКБ «Новатор» на Азиатской выставке оборонных систем, проходившей в апреле 2009 года в Малайзии. В России же «Клаб-К» был показан широкой публике в Санкт-Петербурге на военно-морском салоне «МВМС-2011».

Идея проста: в стандартном контейнере находятся четыре пусковых «трубы» для крылатых ракет, необходимое энергетическое оборудование и жилой отсек для обслуживающего экипажа. Контейнер ничем не отличается от точно таких же транспортных контейнеров и может быть обычным образом размещен на морском контейнеровозе, железнодорожной платформе, седельном тягаче или стоять на портовом складе среди сотен других контейнеров.

Эта пусковая может принимать все данные по целеуказанию от любых других наземных радиолокационных станций, кораблей или самолетов. Пусковая находится в постоянной готовности к пуску. Отличить такой контейнер от стандартных, с какими-нибудь китайскими джинсами, с помощью авиационной или космической разведки невозможно.

Контейнер полностью автономен. К нему может быть добавлен второй контейнер, в котором будут находиться также автономные средства наблюдения, обнаружения и наведения. И его точно так же невозможно обнаружить визуально. И пусковой комплекс из двух контейнеров становится полностью автономной батарей.

Благодаря тому, что спектр ракет для пускового комплекса довольно широк, в экспортном варианте он включает в себя ракеты с радиусом действия не выше 300 километров. То есть не подпадает под договор о нераспространении ядерного оружия и его носителей. Кошмар к генералам НАТО возвращается.

И главное — стоит этот «сюрприз» около 15 миллионов долларов в зависимости от комплектации. Это почти в три раза дешевле корабля класса фрегат и в два раза дешевле береговой ракетной батареи.

Таким образом, даже небогатая страна вполне в состоянии держать на приличном расстоянии от своих берегов, а главное портов, крупные авианосные и десантные соединения. 200-килограммовая боевая часть противокорабельной ракеты 3М-54Э легко пустит на дно фрегат, или эсминец в советской классификации. А залп из четырех ракет всего лишь одного контейнера Club-K может «умножить на ноль» крейсер или авианосец.

И пойди разберись, что за контейнеры, где стоят и кто куда их возит. Получается, уничтожить такую береговую оборону крупная страна-агрессор сможет только ценой серьезных, если не сказать, неприемлемых потерь. А что это за страна, мы даже не будем упоминать.

Но повторить второй раз «фокус» с Гренадой ей, видимо, не удастся.

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