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Впечатлительные американцы сразу прозвали этот самолет «убийца подлодок» (Killer submarines) и оказались недалеки от истины. Модернизированный самолет Ил-38Н действительно предназначен для охоты на подводные лодки противника, однако его потенциал гораздо шире. Благодаря новой поисково-прицельной системе «Новелла-П-38» возможности этого самолета значительно шире. Он способен обнаруживать как подводные, так и надводные цели, а также воздушные. И эффективно уничтожать их.

«Консервный ключ» для подлодок НАТО: противолодочный Ил-38Н способен видеть сквозь воду

2 февраля 2017 г.

      Автор: Виктор Сокирко

Этот «старичок» в модификации Ил-38, разработанный на базе пассажирского Ил-18В, выпускался с 1967 по 1972 год, всего было построено 65 таких противолодочных самолетов. Почти 50 лет в строю – срок службы немалый и, казалось, можно отправлять эти машины на металлолом или в музей. Ан нет. Самолет, помимо начинки, обладает очень надежным планером, за все время эксплуатации с ним произошло всего два летных происшествия – в обоих случаях сработал человеческий фактор, ошибка пилотов. И сейчас, после модернизации, Ил-38Н предстал совершенно в ином качестве, а срок его службы продлен еще как минимум на 10-15 лет.

Изначально Ил-38 предназначался для самостоятельного или совместного с противолодочными кораблями поиска и уничтожения подлодок, проведения морской разведки и поисково-спасательных операций, а также постановки минных заграждений. Этот самолет даже на значительном удалении от берегов стран из стана потенциального противника вызывал панику и трепет. Японцы так вообще откровенно истерили, когда Ил-38 появлялся в районе, где они проводили совместные с США военно-морские маневры.

Знали – этот русский засечет не только все надводные корабли, но и нащупает подводные лодки на максимальной глубине. В декабре 2010 года именно присутствие в небе российских противолодочных самолетов сорвали американо-японские учения, которые были прекращены из-за опасения, что сверхсекретная информация, частоты радаров, может быть перехвачена. Выполняющие «плановые полеты» Ил-38 тогда не нарушали международные правила использования воздушного пространства, но и этого было достаточно, чтобы напугать флот не самых дружественных государств.

Сейчас, после модернизации, боевые возможности Ил-38Н увеличились в четыре раза – он заменяет в небе сразу четыре противолодочных самолета предыдущего поколения. И задач выполняет многократно больше, в том числе связанных с уничтожением обнаруженных целей. Экипаж состоит из семи человек: два пилота (командир корабля, помощник командира корабля), штурман-навигатор, штурман-оператор РЛС, оператор самолётного приёмного индикаторного устройства (СПИУ), бортинженер, бортрадист.

Внешние отличия самолета не столь значительны, но всё же бросаются в глаза. Помимо «модного» цвета фюзеляжа, который сейчас темно-серый и желтых цифр бортового номера, Ил-38 получил и новое навесное оборудование. Это система РТР (радиотехническая разведка) в контейнере над фюзеляжем. Не афишируется, но вероятно, что посредством нее самолет будет поддерживать контакт со спутниковой системой РТР «Лиана». Под носовой частью фюзеляжа в сферическом контейнере расположилась тепловизионная обзорно-поисковая система. Но самое интересное, естественно, во внутренней электронной начинке и вооружении.

Ил-38Н оборудован поисково-прицельной системой «Новелла-П-38», позволяющей обнаруживать самолеты и вертолеты на расстоянии до 90 километров, а надводные цели – до 320 километров. Система может одновременно удерживать в поле зрения более 30 целей над и под водой. Он вооружен крылатыми ракетами, противолодочными торпедами и глубинными ориентирными бомбами, способен нести полезную нагрузку до 9 тонн. В конструкции самолета, диаметр корпуса которого 3,5 метра, можно разместить даже ракеты воздушного базирования «Калибр-А» с дальностью полета до 5 тысяч километров.

Модификация Ил-38Н не ограничивается наличием новой поисково-прицельной системы «Новелла-П-38», самолет имеет и ряд другого радиоэлектронного оборудования. Все элементы комплекса электроники связаны при помощи специальных шин, позволяющих изменять состав оборудования в зависимости от специфики выполняемых задач. Характеристики самого самолета и установленной на нем аппаратуры позволяют вести продолжительное патрулирование в заданном районе, производить поиск целей и передавать информацию о них другим самолетам или кораблям. Ил-38Н способен и самостоятельно атаковать подлодки, а при наличии на борту противокорабельных ракет и надводные объекты противника.

Ил-38Н не уступает, а по некоторым характеристикам и превосходит аналог современного противолодочного самолета P-8 Poseidon, эксплуатация которого началась с конца 2013 года. Также российский самолет может использоваться в качестве патрульного в составе радиоэлектронной разведки.

Справка:

Проект Ил-38Н разрабатывался с конца девяностых годов прошлого века. В начале двухтысячных начались его испытания, но они тогда затянулись на несколько лет. Прерогатива в производстве была отдана проекту Ил-38SD, которые модернизировались для нужд ВМС Индии – всего было переоборудовано шесть таких самолетов. Первый обновленный Ил-38Н появился на вооружении авиации ВМФ России лишь в 2014 году. За минувшее время было модернизировано семь самолетов, которые сейчас базируются на авиабазах Тихоокеанского флота в Приморском крае и на Камчатке. До 2020 года планируется отремонтировать и модернизировать 28 самолетов Ил-38Н, что позволит обеспечить противолодочную оборону на всех флотах России. Всего на вооружении сейчас находится около 50 самолетов Ил-38.

Из последних – 31 января 2017 года Ил-38Н был передан на торжественной церемонии на аэродроме ЛИИ имени Громова в подмосковном Жуковском командованию авиации ВМФ. Как и все предыдущие модернизированные самолеты этой серии, он стал «именным» и был назван в честь генерал-полковника Виктора Потапова, который командовал авиацией ВМФ в 1988—1994 годах. В 1967—1971 годах он был командиром первого отдельного противолодочного полка авиации Северного флота, оснащенного самолетами Ил-38 и руководил вводом этих машин в боевой состав морской авиации.

Первый из модернизированных Ил-38Н с бортовым номером «19 желтый» был назван в честь Радия Петровича Папковского – конструктора фирмы «Ильюшин», который внес большой вклад в создание этих противолодочных самолетов. К слову, цвет номера (бывают красные, голубые и желтые) указывает лишь на принадлежность самолета к части и определяется приказом командира соединения, а сам номер – к подразделению.

Фото: Минобороны России, Виталий Белоусов / РИА Новости, Рамиль Ситдиков / РИА Новости

Метки: , , , , ,

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