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Интернет и ПК

Интернет и ПК

Крым и российские чиновники продолжают покупать ПО американской корпорации Microsoft, несмотря на санкции. Однако делают они это грамотно, так что американцам будет непросто подкопаться. Но возникает резонный вопрос: почему Россия, известная силой своих айтишников, по-прежнему использует зарубежное ПО и ОС, тогда как у нее есть широкий выбор отечественных продуктов?

Картинки по запросу демотиваторы о линукс

Санкции вскрыли проблемы отечественного софта

11 октября 2017 г.

      Автор: Ольга Самофалова

Несмотря на санкции, российские госкомпании и организации, в том числе в Крыму, продолжают покупать программное обеспечение американской корпорации Microsoft, сообщает Reuters со ссылкой на базу данных госзакупок. Находящиеся под санкциями предприятия, в том числе крымские, приобрели более 5 тыс. продуктов Microsoft, потратив на ПО около 60 млн рублей или примерно 1,03 млн долларов, указывает агентство. 

Microsoft Office настолько привычен, что люди просто не готовы переучиваться

Фото: Matthias Balk/DPA/ Global Look Press

При этом агентство не нашло доказательств того, что Microsoft продавала свою продукцию напрямую находящимся под санкциями организациям.

Среди них концерн воздушно-космической обороны «Алмаз-Антей», разработчик зенитных ракетных комплексов «Бук», Главгосэкспертиза России, участвующая в работе над проектом Керченского моста, санаторий «Крым» Минобороны РФ, администрация Белогорского района Республики Крым, научно-производственное объединение «Базальт», производящее боеприпасы, а также базирующийся в Крыму судостроительный завод «Море», свидетельствуют данные системы госзакупок. Эти компании в числе прочих продуктов покупали программы корпоративного лицензирования Open License Program. Эти программы обязывают пользователей вводить полное название компании и ее адрес, что могло бы уличить Microsoft в нарушении санкций США и сорвать сделки. Однако российские компании нашли лазейки для обхода санкций.

Санкционные лазейки

Продукция Microsoft покупалась не напрямую, а через третьих лиц. При этом продукты Microsoft регистрировали на дочернюю или материнскую компанию конечного пользователя. Либо компании из Крыма вместо крымского адреса при регистрации продукта указывали адрес в Краснодарском крае.

Например, «Алмаз-Антей», который с 2014 по 2017 год купил более 500 продуктов Microsoft, в рамках тендера получил 8 лицензий на использование серверного программного обеспечения Microsoft Windows Server. Но сам концерн в тендере не участвовал, вместо него победителем стало ООО «Системный софт», зарегистрированное в Москве.

«В большинстве случаев закупки осуществляют компании, де-юре не имеющие никакого отношения к реальным потребителям софта, это даже не «дочки» и не «внучки», а просто не связанные организации, существующие только на бумаге. Это некое юридическое лицо, зарегистрированное по всем правилам в любом регионе РФ, кроме Крыма, приобретает необходимый софт, формально для себя, устанавливает его и регистрирует на себя. Кто им реально пользуется, в компании-разработчике могут не узнать никогда, поэтому по факту реализация продукта не противоречит санкционному режиму», – говорит учредитель АНО «ПравоРоботов», член экспертного совета по Цифровой экономике Госдумы Никита Куликов.

Россия активно использует ставшие уже традиционными схемы для ухода из-под санкций – через третьи лица. По такой же, по сути, схеме развивается история Белоруссии, которая перепродает санкционные продукты питания в Россию, поменяв этикетку и страну производителя. Похожая история произошла и с турбинами «Сименс» для крымских ТЭС, закупленными не напрямую у европейской компании, а на вторичном рынке. Это общая схема ухода от санкционных запретов, просто с разными модификациями.

При этом Россия не первая страна, попавшая под санкции, поэтому ей даже придумывать особо ничего не надо. «У Ирана имеется полувековая история жизни под санкциями, с которыми он активно боролся и выработал своеобразный иммунный ответ. Появились даже специальные компании – «черные рыцари», которые занимались закупкой нужных санкционных товаров и услуг и перепродажей их стране», – напоминает Алексей Антонов из ГК «Алор».

«А самые лучшие схемы – это, конечно, те, о которых никогда не будет известно, которые прошли идеально и незаметно. Думаю, что их тысячи», – замечает он.

Зарубежные компании вполне могут не отдавать себе отчет, кто в реальности покупает программное обеспечение. Для столь крупной корпорации, как Microsoft, считает Никита Куликов, последствия открытого нарушения санкционного режима опасней, чем потеря прибыли в России. «Скорее всего, в конечном итоге выяснится, что либо, как в случае с «Сименс», в «Майкрософт» не имели никакого понятия относительно назначения реализуемого ими программного обеспечения. Либо софт был куплен вполне легально у организации-поставщика, не имеющей непосредственного отношения к разработчику и не находящейся в юрисдикции США или ЕС, что предполагает, что поставщик не обязан соблюдать ограничения, связанные с санкциями», – считает Куликов.

Однако нельзя до конца исключать, что Microsoft все же понимала, кому продает свои продукты, но не желала терять свой рынок сбыта в России из-за политики. Оценочно Microsoft зарабатывала на России до 20 млрд рублей в год или 2% от общей выручки корпорации. При этом американская компания уже и без санкций начала терять доходы в России из-за появления здесь отечественных ПО, а также политики государства по импортозамещению в этом сегменте рынка.

Летом 2016 года Дмитрий Медведев подписал специальное распоряжение правительства. По нему госорганы РФ должны полностью перейти на отечественное программное обеспечение в 2018 году. Данные госзакупок показывают, что с каждым годом российские чиновники покупают все меньше и меньше программ Microsoft Office и ОС Windows. Одним из серьезных конкурентов американского ПО является, к примеру, отечественный пакет «Мой офис», на который, например, обещало полностью перейти Минкомсвязи. Для сравнения: в 2013 году было опубликовано 405 конкурентов на закупку Microsoft Office, в 2016 году – всего 132 тендера.

Впрочем, и третьим лицам, и Microsoft, скорее всего, не составит труда доказать, что все делалось в рамках закона, что они не нарушали санкционный режим: они не первый год и, возможно, даже не первое десятилетие этим занимаются, хорошо знают все нюансы, уверен Антонов.

Что мешает российскому ПО и ОС

Как так получается, что российские хакеры известны всему миру, но полностью перейти на отечественное ПО и ОС невозможно? «Если сегодня выключить все программные продукты Microsoft в Крыму, процентов девяносто экономики Крыма просто остановится», – сказал «Рейтер» один из перепродавцов этой продукции на условиях анонимности.

В России создан единый реестр отечественного ПО, который показывает, что на рынке широкое поле для выбора продуктов отечественных компаний, производящих клиентский софт или ПО для серверов/серверных приложений. Тогда зачем устраивать эти игры в кошки-мышки вместо того, чтобы взять и отказаться от Microsoft и Windows прямо сейчас?

Есть ряд объективных сложностей, которые заставляют покупать пока зарубежное ПО

«Во-первых, многие системные интеграторы еще не научились проектировать и внедрять сложные решения на базе отечественного ПО. До последнего времени они строили свои внедрения на зарубежных продуктах, и сотрудников подбирали и обучали в соответствии с этим. Тут требуется время на адаптацию», – говорит генеральный директор российского разработчика программной платформы «Базальт СПО» Алексей Смирнов.

Во-вторых, по его словам, многие заказчики используют разработанное для них ПО, которое работает только под ОС Windows, и замена ПО или переработка имеющегося требуют времени и денег. Наконец, многие государственные информационные системы были разработаны таким образом, что пользователи отечественного ПО работать с ними не могут, заключает Смирнов.

Генеральный директор АМТ-ГРУП (российский системный интегратор) Александр Гольцов называет еще несколько моментов, которые препятствуют широкому распространению отечественного клиентского софта – для рабочих мест сотрудников.

«Во-первых, за более чем 25 лет присутствия на рынке продукты Microsoft, в первую очередь MS Office, стали настолько привычными, что отказываться от них, переучиваться люди не готовы. Этот продукт прост и удобен для пользователя», – говорит Гольцов.

«Во-вторых, проблема в стандартизации и документообороте в государственных структурах. ПО должно быть совместимым, иначе возникнут проблемы при обмене данными на межведомственном уровне.

И, в-третьих, вопрос наличия большого количества специалистов, которые могут ставить, настраивать, поддерживать новый продукт. Если продукты MS знакомы любому, то поддержка свежего продукта – нетривиальная задача. Соответственно, возникает проблема как поиска таких специалистов, так и их стоимости», – заключает Гольцов.

Отечественные операционные системы при этом достаточно качественные и конкурентные. Например, на ОС серии ALT работают десятки тысяч рабочих мест в медучреждениях, тысячи в системе образования и в промышленности. Однако есть вопрос к прикладным программам, которые порой совместимы только с MS Windows, замечает Смирнов. Поэтому на импортозамещение софта потребуется время.

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