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Цивилизация Ислама

12 апреля 2016 г.

riafan_logo     Федеральное агентство новостей «ФАН»

Цивилизация Ислама

Ислам: друг или враг...

Теракты по всему миру, войны на Ближнем Востоке, в Закавказье и почти по всей Азии, толпы беженцев, буквально затопившие старушку-Европу, десятки радикальных организаций. И за всем этим стоит одно слово — ислам. Одна из мировых религий, которая все чаще в рассуждениях всевозможных политологов и аналитиков, а также в представлении людей по всему миру противопоставляется христианству. ...

Ислам — вторая по численности в мире и самая молодая из распространенных религий. Численность ее последователей всех конфессий колеблется в районе 1,5-2 миллиардов человек, что ненамного меньше, чем христиан. А ведь появился ислам всего лишь в VII веке, точнее, в 610 году, когда пророку Мохаммеду явился во сне ангел Джабраил и продиктовал первые пять аятов (стихов) Корана. То есть, фактически, в раннем средневековье.

К этому времени христианству существовало более 500 лет. Оно успело пройти целую эволюцию взглядов, стать государственной религией в ряде стран, прежде всего, в Византии и Западной Римской империи. ...

После смерти пророка остро стал вопрос его наследства. Кто возглавит тогда еще единую мусульманскую умму? Вот этот вопрос и расколол исламский мир на два непримиримых лагеря: суннитов и шиитов...

Главная разница между суннитами и шиитами является подход к форме государственности. Сунниты считают, что правителя-халифа, надо избирать голосованием уммы среди представителей племени курейшитов, родного племени пророка Мухаммеда... Эта суннитская модель присутствует ныне в том или ином виде в 20 арабских странах за исключением Бахрейна и Ирака. ...

А вот шиитам, среди которых арабов почти нет, подобный подход, дающий преференции арабам, не понравился с самого начала. И они выбрали для себя вместо халифата, где светскую власть имел халиф, а духовную — имамы, имамат, где власть духовная и светская были объединены... Именно такое положение вещей в государственном устройстве мы и видим в современном Иране, где практически вся полнота власти принадлежит аятоллам, а президент выполняет лишь внешнеполитические функции...

О том, что внутренний конфликт в исламе занимает гораздо большее значение в жизни мусульманских государств и общин, говорит хотя бы тот факт, что основное количество терактов совершается вовсе не в Европе, США или России. Гораздо больше крови проливается именно в арабских странах. «Хезболла» сражается с Израилем вовсе не по вопросам толкования священной книги, а из-за территории Палестины. Шиитский Иран сражался с многоконфессиальным Ираком вовсе не за права иракских шиитов, а именно защиту шиитов во всем мире декларирует Иран. Сражались эти две страны за религиозное лидерство.

А появление террористического «Исламского государства Ирака и Леванта» прямо и недвусмысленно указывает на то,  за что мусульмане борются друг с другом: за создание на Ближнем Востоке единого исламского государства и лидерство в нем...

 

 

Иерархия Русской православной церкви

20 апреля 2016 г.

     Автор: Виктор Поляков

Иерархия Русской православной церкви

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Отзывов (139) на «Инфографика: Вып. 006 Цивилизация Ислама/Иерархия Русской православной церкви»

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